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Committee on Common Names of Plant Diseases

Diseases of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)

Duy Phu Le, Mike Smith, Elizabeth Aitken, David Teakle

List of diseases and pathogens

BACTERIAL AND PHYTOPLASMAL DISEASES  
Big bud (bunchy top)                      Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia
Bacterial rhizome rot                       Bacillus pumilus Meyer & Gottheil 
  Enterobacter cloacae (Jordan) Hormaeche &Edwards
Bacterial wilt                                   Ralstonia solanacearum Smith 
Odorous soft rot                              Pectobacterium carotovora subsp. carotovora Waldee
   = Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora (Jones) Bergey et al.
  Dickeya sp.
   = Erwina chrysanthemi Burkholder et al.
FUNGAL AND OOMYCETES DISEASES  
Anthracnose                                     Colletotrichum zingiberis Butler & Bisby
Aspergillus leaf spot Aspergillus niger Tiegh.
Aspergillus rot Aspergillus parvisclerotigenus (Mich. Saito & Tsuruta)    Frisvad & Samson
Bipolaris leaf spot

Bipolaris maydis (Nisik. & Miyake) Shoemaker

Black blotch                                     Pyricularia zingiberis Nisik.
Black rot Memnoniella echinata (Rivolta) Galloway
Blue mould rot Penicillium brevicompactum Dierckx 
Charcoal rot Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid
Fusarium yellows and rhizome rot Fusarium equiseti (Corda) Sacc.
   Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. zingiberi Trujillo
  Fusarium solani (Mart.) Sacc.
Grey rot Trichurus spiralis Hasselbr.
Khuskia leaf spot Khuskia oryzae Hudson
  = Nigrospora oryzae (Berk. & Broome) Petch
Lasiodiplodia rot Lasiodiplodia theobromae (Pat.) Grifon & Maubl.
Nectria red rot  Nectria inventa Pethybr.
Phoma leaf spot   Phoma exigua Desm. var. exigua
Phoma red rot   Phoma hawaiiensis Trujillo et al.
Phyllosticta leaf spot   Phyllosticta zingiberis Stevens & Ryan
Pseudocercospora leaf spot Pseudocercospora zingiberis (Rathaiah) Deighton
Pythium soft rot   Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson) Fitzp.
  Pythium deliense Meurs
  Pythium graminicola Subram.
  Pythium myriotylum Drechsler
  Pythium spinosum Sawada
  Pythium splendens Braun
  Pythium ultimum Trow
  Pythium vexans de Bary
  Pythium zingiberis Takahashi
Rosellinia rot Rosellinia bunodes (Berk. & Broome) Sacc.
Sclerotial blight Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc.
Shoestring rot Armillaria mellea (Vahl:Fr.) Kummer
Thread blight  Rhizoctonia sp
NEMATODE DISEASES  
Burrowing Radopholus similis (Cobb) Thorne
Reniform Rotylenchus reniformis Linford & Oliveira
Root-knot Meloidogyne arenaria Chitwood
  Meloidogyne hapla Chitwood
  Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood
  Meloidogyne javanica (Treub) Chitwood
  Meloidogyne konaensis Eisenback, Bernard & Schmitt
  Meloidogyne thailandica Handoo et al.
Root lesion Pratylenchus coffeae Goodey
VIRAL DISEASES  
Chlorotic fleck  Ginger chlorotic fleck virus
Mosaic Ginger mosaic virus
   
 

List of references

 

BACTERIAL AND PHYTOPLASMAL DISEASES

Big bud (bunchy top) by Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia

Pegg K. G., Moffett M. L. and Colbran R. C. (1974) Diseases of ginger in Queensland. Queensland Agricultural Journal 5: 611-618.

Persley D., Cooke T. and House S. (2010) Diseases of vegetable crops in Australia. CSIRO Publishing, Australia.

 

Bacterial rhizome rot by Bacillus pumilus Meyer & Gottheil 

Peng Q., Yuan Y. and Gao M. (2013) Bacillus pumilus, a novel ginger rhizome rot pathogen in China. Plant Disease 97: 1308-1315.

 

Bacterial rhizome rot by Enterobacter cloacae (Jordan) Hormaeche & Edwards

Nishijima K. A., Alvarez A. M., Hepperly P. R., Shintaku M. H., Keith L. M., Sato D. M., Bushe B. C., Armstrong W. and Zee F. T. (2004) Association of Enterobacter cloacae with rhizome rot of edible ginger in Hawaii. Plant Disease 88: 1318-1327.

 

Bacterial wilt by Ralstonia solanacearum Smith

Hayward A. C., Moffett M. L. and Pegg K. G. (1967) Bacterial wilt in ginger in Queensland. Queensland Journal of Agricultural and Animal Sciences 24: 1-5.

Hayward A. C. and Pegg K. G. (2013) Bacterial wilt of ginger in Queensland: reappraisal of a disease outbreak. Australasian Plant Pathology 42: 235-239 DOI 10.1007/s13313-012-0174-y.

Kumar A. and Sarma Y. R. (2004) Characterization of Ralstonia solanacearum causing bacterial wilt in ginger. Indian Phytopathology 58 (1): 12-17.

Kumar A., Prameela T. P., Suseelabhai R., Siljo A., Anandaraj M. and Vinatzer B. A. (2014) Host specificity and genetic diversity of race 4 strains of Ralstonia solanacearum. Plant Pathology DOI 10.1111/ppa.12189

Lum K. Y. (1973) Cross inoculation studies of Pseudomonas solanacearum from ginger. MARDI Research Bulletin 1: 15-21.

Quinon U. L., Aragaki M. and Ishii M. (1964) Pathogenicity and serological relationship of three strains of Pseudomonas solanacearum in Hawaii. Phytopathology 54: 1096-1099.

Waki T., Horita M., Kurose D., Mulya K. and Tsuchiya K. (2014) Genetic diversity of Zingiberaceae plant isolates of Ralstonia solanacearum in the Asia-Pacific region. JARQ 47 (3): 283-294.

Xu J., Pan Z. C., Xu J. S., Zhang Z., Zhang H., Zhang L. Q., He Z. Y. and Feng J. (2009) Genetic diversity of Ralstonia solanacearum strains from China. European Journal of Plant Pathology 125: 641-653.

 

Odorous soft rot by Pectobacterium carotovora subsp. carotovora Waldee (as Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora (Jones) Bergey et al.)

Choi J. E. and Han K. S. (1990) Bacterial soft rot and rhizome rot caused by Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora, Pseudomonas marginalis and P. solanacearum. Korean Journal of Plant Pathology 6 (3): 363-368 (English abstract).

Pegg K. G., Moffett M. L. and Colbran R. C. (1974) Diseases of ginger in Queensland. Queensland Agricultural Journal 100: 611-618.

 

Odorous soft rot by Dickeya sp. (as Erwinia chrysanthemi Burkholder et al.)

Stirling A. M. (2002) Erwinia chrysanthemi, the cause of soft rot in ginger (Zingiber officinale) in Australia. Australasian Plant Pathology 31: 419-420.

 

FUNGAL AND OOMYCETES DISEASES

Anthracnose by Colletotrichum zingiberiS Butler & Bisby

Sundraraman S. (1922) A new ginger disease in Godvari district. Memoirs of the Department of Agriculture, India (Botanical Series) 11: 209-217.

 

Aspergillus leaf spot by Aspergillus niger Tiegh.

Pawar N. V., Patil V. B., Kamble S. S. and Dixit G. B. (2008) First report of Aspergillus niger as a plant pathogen on Zingiber officinale from India. Plant Disease 92: 1368.

 

Aspergillus rot by Aspergillus parvisclerotigenus (Mich. Saito & Tsuruta) Frisvad & Samson

Akhtar A., Awan Z. A. and Shoaib A. (2014) First report of new postharvest rot in ginger rhizome by Aspergillus parvisclerotigenus in Pakistan. Plant Disease 98: 1158 http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-02-14-0168-PDN.

 

Bipolaris leaf spot by Bipolaris maydis (Nisik. & Miyake) Shoemaker

McRae W. (1926) Report of the imperial mycologist. Scientic Report of Agricultural Research Institute Pusa 26: 54-69.

Shadap A., Hegde N. K. and Pariari A. (2013) Performance of ginger var. Humnadad as influenced by planting dates under northern dry zone of Karnataka. The Bioscan 8 (1): 131-133.

 

Black blotch by Pyricularia zingiberis Nishik.

Kotani S. and Kurata M. (1992) Black blotch of ginger rhizome by Pyricularia zingiberi Nishikado. Annals of Phytopathological Society of Japan 58: 469-472.

Rathaiah Y. (1980) Pyricularia leaf spot of ginger in Assam. Indian Phytopathology 32 (2): 321-322.

 

Black rot by Memnoniella echinata (Rivolta) Galloway

Haware M. P., Joshi L. K. and Sharma N. D. (1975) Some rhizomiicolous and foliicolous fungi of ginger from India. Sydowia 28: 143-147.

 

Blue mould rot by Penicillium brevicompactum Dierckx 

Overy D. P. and Frisvad J. C. (2005) Mycotoxin production and postharvest storage rot of ginger (Zingiber officinale) by Penicillium brevicompactum. Journal of Food Protection 68 (3): 607-609.

 

Charcoal rot by Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid

Sarma Y. R. and Nambia K. K. N. (1974) Dry rot in ginger caused by Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid. Current Science 43: 487-488.

 

Fusarium yellows and rhizome rot by Fusarium equiseti (Corda) Sacc.

Dohroo N. P. and Sharma S. L. (1984) Biological control of rhizome rot of ginger in storage with Trichoderma viride. Indian Journal of Plant Pathology 2: 185-186.

 

Fusarium yellows and rhizome rot by F. oxysporum f. sp. zingiberi Trujillo

Teakle D. S. (1965) Fusarium rhizome rot of ginger in Queensland. Queensland Journal of Agriculture and Animal Science 22: 263-272.

Trujillo E. E. (1963) Fusarium yellows and rhizome rot of common ginger. Phytopathology 53 (11): 1370-1371.

 

Fusarium yellows and rhizome rot by F. solani (Mart.) Sacc.

Kuma S. N. S. (1977) Ginger rot by Fusarium solani. Journal of Plantation Crops 5: 122.

 

Grey rot by Trichurus spiralis Hasselbr.

Sharma N. D. and Joshi L. K. (1976) Three new storage diseases of ginger (Zingiber officinale (L.) Rosc.). Science and Culture 42: 176-178.

Sullia S. B. and Khan K. R. (1980) Fungal diseases of certain vegetables and fruits marketed in Bangalore city. National Academy of Science Letters 3: 137-138.

 

Khuskia leaf spot by Khuskia oryzae Hudson (as Nigrospora oryzae (Berk. & Broome) Petch)

Grech N. M., Willers P., Frean R. T. and Marx D. H. (1989) A new leaf spot of ginger in Southern Africa and its control. Journal of Phytopathology 126: 323-324.

 

Lasiodiplodia rot by Lasiodiplodia theobromae (Pat.) Grifon & Maubl.

Wilson K. I. and Balagopal C. (1971) Dry rot of ginger rhizomes caused by Diplodia natalensis. Indian Phytopathology 24: 385-386.

 

Nectria red rot by Nectria inventa Pethybr.

Haware M. P., Joshi L. K. and Sharma N. D. (1975) Some rhizomiicolous and foliicolous fungi of ginger from India. Sydowia 28: 143-147.

Sharma N. D. and Joshi L. K. (1976) Three new storage diseases of ginger (Zingiber officinale (L.) Rosc.). Science and Culture 42: 176-178.

 

Phoma leaf spot by Phoma exigua Desm. var. exigua

Rai M. K. (1993) Identity and taxonomy of hitherto unreported pathogen causing leaf-spot disease of ginger in India. Mycotaxon 46: 329-333.

 

Phoma red rot by Phoma hawaiiensis Trujillo et al.

Trujillo E. E., Nishijima W., Menezes T., Lipp R. and Yow R. (1996) Pink blush and red rot of edible ginger, and pink root rot of sugar cane, caused by Phoma hawaiiensis sp. nov. Journal of Hawaiian and Pacific Agriculture 7: 1-9.

 

Phyllosticta leaf spot by Phyllosticta zingiberis (Ramakr.) Stevens & Ryan

Ramakrishman T. S. (1942) A leaf spot disease of Zingiber officinale caused by Phyllosticta zingiberi sp. nov. Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Science, Section B 20 (4): 167-171.

Sohi H. S., Jain S. S., Sharma S. L. and Verma B. R. (1964) New records of plant diseases from Himachal Pradesh. Indian Phytopathology 17 (1): 35-41.

 

Pseudocercospora leaf spot by Pseudocercospora zingiberis (Rathaiah) Deighton

Rathaiah Y. (1987) A new species of Cercoseptoria causing a leaf spot of ginger. Mycologia 73 (4): 774-777.

 

Pythium soft rot by Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson) Fitzp.

Ichitani T. and Shinsu T. (1980) Pythium zingiberum causing rhizome rot of ginger plants and its distribution. Annals of Phytopathological Society of Japan 46: 435-441 (English abstract).

Li Y., Mao  L. G., Yan D. D.,  Liu X. M.,  Ma T. T., Shen J., Liu P. F., Li, Z., Wang Q. X., Ouyang C. B., Guo M. X. and Cao A. C. (2014) First report in China of soft rot of ginger caused by Pythium aphanidermatum. Plant Disease 98: 1011.

 

Pythium soft rot by P. deliense Meurs

Haware M. P. and Joshi L. K. (1974) Studies on soft rot of ginger from Madhya Pradesh. Indian Phytopathology 27: 158-161.

 

Pythium soft rot by P. graminicola Subram.

Trujillo E. E. (1964) Disease of ginger (Zingiber officinale) in Hawaii, Circular Hawaii Agricultural Expirment Station, University of Hawaii.

Lomavatu M. F., Conroy J. and Aitken E. A. B. (2009) Molecular identification of Pythium isolates of ginger from Fiji and Australia. In: Williamson P. (Ed.), 17th  Biennial Australasian Plant Pathology Society Conference, Newcastle, NSW.

 

Pythium soft rot by P. myriotylum Drechsler

Philip S. (2005) Pathogenicity and characterization of Pythium species causing soft rot of ginger. In: Parthasarathy V. A. (Ed.), Abstracts of M.Sc.and Ph.D Dissertations on spice crops. Indian Institute of Spices Research, p. 26.

Stirling G. R., Turaganivalu U., Stirling A. M., Lomavatu M. F. and Smith M. K. (2009) Rhizome rot of ginger (Zingiber officinale) caused by Pythium myriotylum in Fiji and Australia. Australasian Plant Pathology 38: 453-460.

Tsai Y. P. (1991) List of plant diseases in Taiwan. The Plant Protection Society of the Republic of China and the Phytopathological Society of the Republic of China, Taichung, Taiwan.

Lin L. T., Chang S. S. and Leu L. S. (1971) Soft rot of ginger. Plant Protection Bulletin of Taiwan 13: 54-67.

C.M.I. (1966) Pythium myriotylum. Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, Great Britain.

 

Pythium soft rot by P. spinosum Sawada

Teakle D. S. (1960) Species of Pythium in Queensland. Queensland Journal of Agricultural Science 17: 15-31.

Ichitani T. and Shinsu T. (1981) Detection of Pythium zingiberum causing rhizome rot disease of ginger from soils of surrounding area of continuous indoor cropping for immature rhizome production. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan 47:  158-165.

 

Pythium soft rot by P. splendens Braun

Liu P. S. W. (1977) A supplement to a host list of plant diseases in Sabah, Malaysia. Commonwealth Mycological Institute, Kew.

Shanmugam V., Dohroo N. P., Gupta M., Gangta V. and Dohroo, A. (2010) First report of Pythium splendens on ginger. Journal of Plant Pathology 92: S109.

 

Pythium soft rot by P. ultimum Trow

Dohroo, N.P. (2001) Etiology and management of storage rot of ginger in Himachal Pradesh. Indian Phytopathology 54: 49-54.

Ichitani T. and Shinsu T. (1980) Pythium zingiberum causing rhizome rot of ginger plants and its distribution. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan 46: 435-441 (English abstract).

 

Pythium soft rot by P. vexans de Bary

Ramakrishnan T. S. (1949) The occurrence of Pythium vexans de Bary in South India. Indian Phytopathology 2: 27-30.

Lomavatu M. F., Conroy J. and Aitken E. A. B. (2009) Molecular identification of Pythium isolates of ginger from Fiji and Australia. In: Williamson P. (Ed.), 17th  Biennial Australasian Plant Pathology Society Conference, Newcastle, NSW.

 

Pythium soft rot by P. zingiberis Takahashi

Takahashi M. (1954) Pythium zingiberum causing rhizome rot of ginger plants and its distribution. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan 18: 435-441.

Yang K. D., Kim H. M., Lee W. H. and So I. Y. (1988) Studies on rhizome rot of ginger caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp zingiberi and Pythium zingiberum. Korean Journal of Plant Pathology 4: 271-277.

 

Rosellinia rot by Rosellinia bunodes (Berk. & Broome) Sacc.

Stevens F. L. and Atienza J. D. (1931) Diseases of cultivated ginger. Philippine Agriculturist 20: 171-176.

 

Sclerotial blight by Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc.

Haware M. P. and Joshi L. K. (1973) Basal rot of ginger (Zingiber officinale) caused by Sclerotium rolfsii from Madhya Pradesh. Indian Phytopathology 26 (3): 575-576.

 

Shoestring rot by Armillaria mellea (Vahl:Fr.) Kummer

Pegg K. G., Moffett M. L. and Colbran R. C. (1974) Diseases of ginger in Queensland. Queensland Agricultural Journal 100: 611-618.

 

Thread blight by Rhizoctonia sp.

Kato K. and Hirota K. (1971) A new disease: sheath blight of ginger. Annals of Phytopathological Society of Japan 37: 169.

Sundram N. V. (1954) Thread blight of ginger. Indian Phytopathology 6 (2): 80-85.

Yang G. H., Conner R. L., Cai H., Li F. and Chen Y. Y. (2008) First report of rhizome blight of ginger caused by binucleate Rhizoctonia AG-R in China. Plant Disease 92: 312.

 

NEMATODE DISEASES

Burrowing nematode by Radopholus similis (Cobb) Thorne

Bridge J. (1988) Plant-parasitic nematode problems in the Pacific Islands. Journal of Nematology 20:173-183.

Turaganivalu U. and Stirling G. R. (2013) Burrowing nematode (Radopholus similis): a severe pathogen of ginger in Fiji. Australasian Plant Pathology 42: 431-436.

 

Reniform nematode by Rotylenchus reniformis Linford & Oliveira

Bridge J. (1988) Plant-parasitic nematode problems in the Pacific Islands. Journal of Nematology 20 (2): 173-183.

 

Root-knot nematode by Meloidogyne arenaria Chitwood

Bridge J. and Starr J. L. (2007) Plant nematodes of agricultural importance: a color handbook. Academic Press. The United States of America, p. 88-89.

 

Root-knot nematode by Meloidogyne hapla Chitwood

Bridge J. and Starr J. L. (2007) Plant nematodes of agricultural importance: a color handbook. Academic Press. The United States of America, p. 88-89.

 

Root-knot nematode by Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood

Colbran R. C. and Davis J. J. (1969) Studies of hot water treatment and soil fumigation for control of root knot in ginger. Queensland Journal of Agricultural and Animal Sciences 26: 399-445.

Mammen K. V. (1973) Root-gall nematodes as a serious pest of ginger in Kerala. Current Science  42: 549.

Haynes P. H., Partridge I. J. and Sivan P. (1973) Ginger production in Fiji. Fiji Agricultural Journal 35: 51–56.

Handoo Z. A., Skantar A. M., Carta L. K. and Erbe E. F. (2005) Morphological and molecular characterization of a new root knot nematode, Meloidogyne thailandica n. sp. (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae) parasitizing ginger (Zingiber sp.). Journal of Nematology 37 (3): 343-353.

 

Root-knot nematode by Meloidogyne javanica (Treub) Chitwood

Colbran R. C. and Davis J. J. (1969) Studies of hot water treatment and soil fumigation for control of root knot in ginger. Queensland Journal of Agricultural and Animal Sciences 26: 399-445.

 

Root-knot nematode by Meloidogyne konaensis Eisenback, Bernard & Schmitt

Zhang F. and Schemitt D. P. (1994) Host status of 32 plant species to Meloidogyne konaenisSupplement to Journal of Nematology 26 (4S): 744-748.

 

Root-knot nematodes by Meloidogyne thailandica Handoo, Skantar, Carta & Erbe

Handoo Z. A., Skantar A. M., Carta L. K. and Erbe E. F. (2005) Morphological and molecular characterization of a new root knot nematode, Meloidogyne thailandica n. sp. (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae) parasitizing ginger (Zingiber sp.). Journal of Nematology 37 (3): 343-353.

 

Root lesion nematode by Pratylenchus coffeae Goodey

Chau N. N., Thanh N. V., De Waele D. and Geraert E. (1997) Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with banana in Vietnam. International Journal of Nematology 7: 122-126.

Bridge J. and Starr J. L. (2007) Plant nematodes of agricultural importance: a color handbook. Academic Press. The United States of America, p. 88-89.

 

VIRAL DISEASES

Chlorotic fleck by ginger chlorotic fleck virus

Suryanarayana V. and Pant R. P. (2008) Mosaic and veinal fleck on ginger in Karnataka - A viral disease associated with isometric particles. Indian Journal of Virology 19: 124.

Thomas J. E. (1986) Purification and properties of ginger chlorotic fleck virus. Annals of Applied Biology 108 (1): 43-50.

 

Mosaic by ginger mosaic virus

Nambiar K. K. N. and Sarma Y. R. (1975) Mosaic disease of ginger (Zingiber officinale). Arecanut Spices Bulletin 6 (4): 3-4.

So I. Y. (1980) Studies on ginger mosaic virus. Korean Journal of Plant Protection 19 (2): 67-72.

Suryanarayana V. and Pant R. P. (2008) Mosaic and veinal fleck on ginger in Karnataka - A viral disease associated with isometric particles. Indian Journal of Virology 19: 124.