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Committee on Common Names of Plant Diseases

Banana diseases

List of pathogens, diseases and references

BACTERIA

Blood Wilt Bacterium [Blood bacterial wilt]

[There is no valid published name for the bacterium causing blood bacterial wilt. "Pseudomonas celebensis" (Gäumann, 1923) and Xanthomonas campestris pv. celebensis (Bradbury, 1986) are not valid names. The pathogen was excluded from the Approved Lists (1980) because the original description was incomplete and none of the original isolates collected by Gäumann exist today. Later comparison of fresh isolates with Ralstonia solanacearum show that the two pathogens are related, but clearly distinct from each other]

Gäumann E., 1923. Onderzoekingen over de bloedziekte der bananen op Celebes II (Investigations on the blood disease of banana in Celebes II). Mededeelingen van het Instituut voor Plantenziekten No. 59., 45p.

Thwaites R., Eden-Green S.J., Black R., 2000. Diseases caused by bacteria. In Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset, D.R. Jones (ed.), pp. 213-239. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

Thwaites R., Mansfield J., Eden-Green S.J., Seal S., 1999. RAPD and rep-PCR-based fingerprinting of vascular bacterial pathogens of Musa spp. Plant Pathology 48: 121-128.

Burkholderia cepacia (ex Burkholder 1950) Yabuuchi et al. 1993; Pseudomonas sp. [Bacterial finger-tip rot]

[Bacterial finger-tip rot in Taiwan and elsewhere was originally attributed to Pseudomonas spp. (Buddenhagen, 1968). Recent research shows the cause in Taiwan is Burkholderia cepacia (Lee et al., 2003)].

Buddenhagen I.W., 1968. Banana diseases in the Pacific area. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin 16: 17-31.

Lee Y.A., Shiao Y.Y., Chao C.P., 2003. First report of Burkholderia cepacia as a pathogen of banana finger-tip rot in Taiwan. Plant Disease 87: 601.

Stover R.H., 1972. Banana, Plantain and Abacá Diseases. Commonwealth Mycological Institute, Kew, Surrey, UK, 316p.

Thwaites R., Eden-Green S.J., Black R., 2000. Diseases caused by bacteria. In Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset, D.R. Jones (ed.), pp. 213-239. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

Pectobacterium atrosepticum (van Hall 1902) Gardan et al. 2003 [Bacterial rhizome rot]

Akiew E., 1998. An evaluation of the relative importance of banana corm rot in North Queensland. HRDC Project No. FR 97030. Report to 30 June 1998.

Gardan L., Gouy C., Christen R., Samson, R., 2003. Elevation of three subspecies of Pectobacterium carotovorum to species level: Pectobacterium atrosepticum sp.nov, Pectobacterium betavasculorum sp.nov. and Pectobacterium wasabiae sp.nov. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Biology 53: 381-391.

Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Jones 1901) Hauben et al. 1999 emend. Gardan et al. 2003 [Bacterial rhizome rot]

Hauben L., Moore E.R.B., Vauterin L., Steenackers M., Mergaert J., Verdonck L., Swings J. 1998. Phylogenetic position of the phytopathogens within the Enterobacteriaceae. Systematic and Applied Microbiology 21: 384-397.

Stover R.H., 1959. Bacterial rhizome rot of bananas. Phytopathology 49: 290-292.

Thwaites R., Eden-Green S.J., Black R., 2000. Diseases caused by bacteria. In Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset, D.R. Jones (ed.), pp. 213-239. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

Pectobacterium chrysanthemi (Burkholder et al. 1953) Brenner et al. 1973 (Approved Lists 1980) emend. Hauben et al. 1999. [Finger soft rot; Pseudostem wet rot; Bacterial rhizome rot]

Dickey, R.S.,Victoria, J.I., 1980. Taxonony and emended description of strains of Erwinia isolated from Musa paradisiaca Linnaeus. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology 30: 129-134.

Thwaites R., Eden-Green S.J., Black R., 2000. Diseases caused by bacteria. In Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset, D.R. Jones (ed.), pp. 213-239. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

Tomlinson D.L., King G.A., Ovia A., 1987. Bacterial corm and rhizome rot of banana (Musa spp.) in Papua New Guinea caused by Erwinia chrysanthemi. Tropical Pest Management 33: 196-199.

Ralstonia solanacearum (Smith 1896) Yabuuchi et al. 1996 (race 1) [Bacterial wilt]

Akiew E., 1992. Bacterial wilt of diploid Musa caused by Pseudomonas solanacearum Race 1 in Australia. Plant Disease 76: 753.

Buddenhagen I.W., 1962. Bacterial wilt of certain seed-bearing Musa spp. caused by the tomato strain of Pseudomonas solanacearum. Phytopathology 52: 286.

Thwaites R., Eden-Green S.J., Black R., 2000. Diseases caused by bacteria. In Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset, D.R. Jones (ed.), pp. 213-239. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

Ralstonia solanacearum (Smith 1896) Yabuuchi et al. 1996 (race 2) [Bugtok (=Bacterial hard pulp); Moko bacterial wilt]

Buddenhagen I.W., 1960. Strains of Pseudomonas solanacearum in indigenous hosts in banana plantations of Costa Rica, and their relationship to bacterial wilt of banana. Phytopathology 50: 660-664.

Buddenhagen I.W., 1961. Bacterial wilt of bananas: history and known distribution. Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad) 38: 107-121.

Molina G. 1996. Integrated management of 'Tibaglon', a bacterial fruit rot disease of cooking bananas under farmer's field. Philippine Phytopathology 32: 83-91.

Roperos N.I., 1965. Note on the occurrence of a new disease of cooking banana in the Philippines. Coffee and Cocoa Journal 8: 135-136.

Soguilon C., Magnaye L., Natural M., 1994. Bugtok disease of cooking bananas: I. Etiology of the disease and diagnostic symptoms. Philippine Phytopathology 30: 26-34.

Thwaites R., Eden-Green S.J., Black R., 2000. Diseases caused by bacteria. In Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset, D.R. Jones (ed.), pp. 213-239. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum (Yirgou and Bradbury 1968) Young et al. 1978 [Xanthomonas wilt]

Thwaites R., Eden-Green S.J., Black R., 2000. Diseases caused by bacteria. In Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset, D.R. Jones (ed.), pp. 213-239. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

Yirgou D., Bradbury J.F., 1968. Bacterial wilt of Ensete (Ensete ventricosum) incited by Xanthomonas musacearum nov. sp. Phytopathology 58: 111-112.


FUNGI

Acremonium strictum W. Gams (1971); Acremonium sp. [Crown rot; Fruit rot]

Jones D.R., 1991. Chemical control of crown rot in Queensland bananas. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 31: 693-698.

Roy A.K., Singh C.P., Singh D.K., 1989. Some unrecorded fruit rot diseases of banana. Indian Phytopathology 42: 202-203.

Acremonium stromaticum W. Gams & R.H. Stover (1975) [Root and rhizome rot – associated with nematode lesions]

Pinochet J., Stover R.H., 1980. Fungi associated with nematode lesions on plantains in Honduras. Nematropica 10: 112-115.

Pinochet J.G., Stover R.H., 1980. Fungi in lesions caused by burrowing nematodes on bananas and their root and rhizome rotting potential. Tropical Agriculture 57: 227-232.

Sarah J.L., 2000. Nematode pathogens-burrowing nematode. In Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset, D.R. Jones (ed.), pp.295-303. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

Acrodontium simplex (F. Mangenot) de Hoog (1972) [Acrodontium leaf speckle]

Hwang S.C., Chen,C.L., 1986. A new leaf speckle disease of banana caused by Acrodontium simplex in Taiwan. Plant Protection Bulletin (Taiwan) 28: 413-415.

Jones D.R., 2000. Leaf speckle. In Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset, D.R. Jones (ed.), pp. 112-113. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissel (1912) [Peel rot]

Roy A.K., Singh C.P., Singh D.K., 1989. Some unrecorded fruit rot diseases of banana. Indian Phytopathology 42: 202-203.

Armillaria mellea (Vahl) P. Kumm. (1871); Armillaria tabescens (Scop.) Emel (1921) [Armillaria corm rot]

Blake C.D., 1963. Root and corm diseases of banana. Agricultural Gazette of New South Wales 24: 526-528.

Jones D.R., Stover R.H., 2000. Armillaria corm rot. In Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset, D.R. Jones (ed.), p 159. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

Bidenticula cannae Deighton (1972) [Zonate leaf spot]

Deigthon F.C., 1972. Four leaf-spotting Hyphomycetes from Africa. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 59: 419-427.

Botryosphaeria ribis Grossenb. & Duggar (1911) [Fruit rot]

Kachhwaha M., Chile A., Khare V., Mehta A., Mehta P., 1992. A new fruit rot disease of banana. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology 22: 211.

Jones D.R., Stover, R.H., 2000. Fungal diseases of banana fruit, preharvest diseases. In Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset, D.R. Jones (ed.), pp. 173-190. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

Botrytis cinerea Pers. (1794) [Tip-end rot]

Jones D.R., Stover, R.H., 2000. Fungal diseases of banana fruit, preharvest diseases. In Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset, D.R. Jones (ed.), pp. 173-190. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

Cephalosporium sp. [Central American fruit speckle (component); Crown rot]

Muirhead I.F., Jones D.R., 2000. Fungal diseases of banana fruit, postharvest diseases. In Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset, D.R. Jones (ed.), pp. 190-206. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

Jones D.R., Stover, R.H., 2000. Fungal diseases of banana fruit, preharvest diseases. In Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset, D.R. Jones (ed.), pp. 173-190. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

Ceratocystis paradoxa (Dade) C. Moreau (1952) (anamorph: Chalara paradoxa (De Seynes) Sacc. (1892)) [Ceratocystis fruit rot; Corm rot; Crown rot; Main stalk rot; Stem-end rot]

Muirhead I.F., Jones D.R., 2000. Fungal diseases of banana fruit, postharvest diseases. In Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset, D.R. Jones (ed.), pp. 190-206. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

Roy A.K., Singh C.P., Singh D.K., 1989. Some unrecorded fruit rot diseases of banana. Indian Phytopathology 42: 202-203.

Jones D.R., 2000. Ceratocystis corm rot. In Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset, D.R. Jones (ed.), p. 167. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

Cercospora hayi Calp. (1955) [Brown spot; Diamond fruit spot (component)]

Jones D.R., Stover, R.H., 2000. Fungal diseases of banana fruit, preharvest diseases. In Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset, D.R. Jones (ed.), pp. 173-190. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

Chaetothyrina musarum (Speg.) Theiss (1913) [Sooty blotch; Sooty mould]

Jones D.R., Stover, R.H., 2000. Fungal diseases of banana fruit, preharvest diseases. In Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset, D.R. Jones (ed.), pp. 173-190. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

Cladosporium atriellum Cooke (1878); Cladosporium cladosporioides (Fresen) G.A. de Vries (1953) [Sooty mould]

Jones D.R., Stover, R.H., 2000. Fungal diseases of banana fruit, preharvest diseases. In Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset, D.R. Jones (ed.), pp. 173-190. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

Cladosporium musae E. W. Mason (1945) = Periconiella sapientumicola G. Siboe (1994) [Cladosporium leaf speckle]

Frossard P., 1963. Une cladosporiose du bananier en Côte d’Ivoire. Fruits 18: 443-453.

Jones D.R., 2000. Cladosporium speckle. In Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset, D.R. Jones (ed.), pp. 108-111. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

Siboe G.M., 1994. Taxonomy of the fungus causing speckling disease of bananas (Musa spp.) in Kenya. The African Journal of Mycology and Biotechnology 2: 1-6.

Colletotrichum musae (Berk. & M. A. Curtis) Arx (1957) [Anthracnose; Central American fruit speckle (component); Crown rot; Fungal scald; Main stalk rot; Peduncle rot; Stem-end rot]

Jones D.R., Stover, R.H., 2000. Fungal diseases of banana fruit, preharvest diseases. In Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset, D.R. Jones (ed.), pp. 173-190. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

Muirhead I.F., Jones D.R., 2000. Fungal diseases of banana fruit, postharvest diseases. In Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset, D.R. Jones (ed.), pp. 190-206. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

Cordana johnstonii M. B. Ellis (1971) [Cordana leaf spot]

Jones D.R., 2000. Cordana leaf spot. In Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset, D.R. Jones (ed.), pp. 99-101. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

Cordana musae (Zimm.) Höhn (1923) [Cordana leaf spot]

Jones D.R., 2000 Cordana leaf spot. In Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset, D.R. Jones (ed.), pp. 99-101. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

Curvularia geniculata (Tracey & Earle) Boedijn (1933); Curvularia lunata (Wakker) Boedijn (1933) [Curvularia leaf speckle]

Meredith D.S., 1963. Some graminicolous fungi associated with spotting of banana leaves in Jamaica. Annals of Applied Biology 51: 371-378.

Cylindrocladium gracile (Bugnic.) Boesew(1982); Cylindrocladium spathiphylli Schoult., El-Gholl & Alfieri (1982) [Cylindrocladium root rot]

Jones D.R., 2000. Cylindocladium root rot. In Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset, D.R. Jones (ed.), pp. 159-160. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing

Risede J.M., Simoneau P., 2001. Typing Cylindrocladium species by analysis of ribosomal DNA spacers polymorphism: application to field isolates from the banana rhizosphere. Mycologia 93: 494-504.

Cylindrocarpon musae C. Booth & R. H. Stover (1974) [Root and rhizome rot - associated with nematode lesions]

Booth C, Stover R.H., 1974. Cylindrocarpon musae sp. nov., commonly associated with burrowing nematode (Radopholus similis) lesions on bananas. Transcations of the British Mycological Society 63: 503-507.

Pinochet J.G., Stover R.H., 1980. Fungi in lesions caused by burrowing nematodes on bananas and their root and rhizome rotting potential. Tropical Agriculture 57: 227-232.

Sarah J.L., 2000. Nematode pathogens-burrowing nematode. In Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset, D.R. Jones (ed.), pp. 295-303. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

Cylindrocarpon sp. [Central American fruit speckle (component)]

Jones D.R., Stover, R.H., 2000. Fungal diseases of banana fruit, preharvest diseases. In Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset, D.R. Jones (ed.), pp. 173-190. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

Deightoniella torulosa (Syd.) M. B. Ellis (1957) [Black-tip; Central American fruit speckle (component); Cigar-end rot; Damping-off; Deightoniella fruit speckle; Deightoniella leaf spot]

Jones D.R., Lomerio E.O., Tessera M., Quimio A.J., 2000. Deightoniella leaf spot. In Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset, D.R. Jones (ed.), pp. 102-104. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

Jones D.R., Stover, R.H., 2000. Fungal diseases of banana fruit, preharvest diseases. In Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset, D.R. Jones (ed.), pp. 173-190. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

Meredith D.S., 1965. Tip rot of banana fruits in Jamaica II. Verticillium theobromae and Fusarium spp. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 48: 327-336.

Dothiorella gregaria Sacc. [Tip-end rot]

Jones D.R., Stover, R.H., 2000. Fungal diseases of banana fruit, preharvest diseases. In Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset, D.R. Jones (ed.), pp. 173-190. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

Drechslera gigantea (Heald & F. A. Wolf) S. Ito (1930) [Eyespot]

Jones D.R., Tessera M., Quimio A.J., 2000. Drechslera leaf spot. In Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset, D.R. Jones (ed.), p. 105. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

Drechslera musae-sapientum (Hansf.) M. B. Ellis (1971) [Eyespot; Fruit rot]

Ellis, M.B., 1971. Dematiaceous Hyphomycetes. Commonwealth Mycological Institute, Kew, Surrey, UK, pp. 451-452.

Roy A.K., Singh C.P., Singh D.K., 1989. Some unrecorded fruit rot diseases of banana. Indian Phytopathology 42: 202-203.

Drechslera spicifera (Bainier) Arx (1975) [Fruit rot]

Roy A.K., Singh C.P., Singh D.K., 1989. Some unrecorded fruit rot diseases of banana. Indian Phytopathology 42: 202-203.

Fumago vagans Pers. (1822) [Sooty mould]

Jones D.R., Stover, R.H., 2000. Fungal diseases of banana fruit, preharvest diseases. In Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset, D.R. Jones (ed.), pp. 173-190. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

Fusarium spp. [Crown rot; Diamond spot (component); Tip-end rot]

Jones D.R., Stover, R.H., 2000. Fungal diseases of banana fruit, preharvest diseases. In Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset, D.R. Jones (ed.), pp. 173-190. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

Muirhead I.F., Jones D.R., 2000. Fungal diseases of banana fruit, postharvest diseases. In Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset, D.R. Jones (ed.), pp. 190-206. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

Fusarium fusarioides (Gonz. Frag. & Cif.) C. Booth (1971) [Central American fruit speckle (component)]

Jones D.R., Stover, R.H., 2000. Fungal diseases of banana fruit, preharvest diseases. In Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset, D.R. Jones (ed.), pp. 173-190. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

Fusarium moniliforme J. Sheld. (1904) (teleomorph: Gibberella fujikuroi (Sawada) Wollenw. (1931)) [Crown rot; Black heart; Pseudostem heart rot; Root and rhizome rot – associated with nematode lesions]

Jones D.R., Lomeiro E.O., 2000. Pseudostem heart rot. In Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset, D.R. Jones (ed.), pp. 166-167. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

Jones D.R., Stover, R.H., 2000. Fungal diseases of banana fruit, preharvest diseases. In Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset, D.R. Jones (ed.), pp. 173-190. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

Muirhead I.F., Jones D.R., 2000. Fungal diseases of banana fruit, postharvest diseases. In Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset, D.R. Jones (ed.), pp. 190-206. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

Pinochet J., 1979. Nematode-fungus associations in bananas and plantains. Journal of Nematology 11, 311-312.

Temkin-Gorodeiski N., Chorin M., 1964. Black heart disease of the Cavendish banana fruits. Plant Disease Reporter 48: 134-135.

Fusarium moniliforme var. subglutinans Wollenw. & Reinking (1925) [Fusarium tip-rot; Main stalk rot]

Meredith D.S., 1965. Tip rot of banana fruits in Jamaica II. Verticillium theobromae and Fusarium spp. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 48: 327-336.

Muirhead I.F., Jones D.R., 2000. Fungal diseases of banana fruit, postharvest diseases. In Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset, D.R. Jones (ed.), pp. 190-206. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

Fusarium oxysporum Schltdl. (1824) [Fungal root rot; Peduncle rot]

Jones D.R., Stover R.H., 2000. Fungal root rot. In Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset, D.R. Jones (ed.), pp. 162-163. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

Muirhead I.F., Jones D.R., 2000. Fungal diseases of banana fruit, postharvest diseases. In Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset, D.R. Jones (ed.), pp. 190-206. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

Fusarium oxysporum Schltdl. f. sp. cubense (E. F. Sm.) W. C. Snyder & H. N. Hansen (1940) [Fusarium wilt]

Ploetz R.C. (ed.), 1990. Fusarium wilt of banana, 140pp. St. Paul, Minnesota, USA: American Phytopathology Society.

Ploetz R.C., Pegg K.G., 2000. Fusarium wilt. In Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset, D.R. Jones (ed.), pp. 143-159. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

Stover R.H., 1962. Fusarial Wilt (Panama Disease) of Bananas and other Musa species, 117pp. Kew, Surrey, UK: Commonwealth Mycological Institute.

Fusarium pallidoroseum (Cooke) Sacc. [Crown rot; Diamond fruit spot (component); Fungal scald; Peduncle rot]

Jones D.R., Stover, R.H., 2000. Fungal diseases of banana fruit, preharvest diseases. In Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset, D.R. Jones (ed.), pp. 173-190. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

Muirhead I.F., Jones D.R., 2000. Fungal diseases of banana fruit, postharvest diseases. In Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset, D.R. Jones (ed.), pp. 190-206. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

Fusarium semitectum Berk. & Ravenel (1874) [Central American fruit speckle (component)]

Jones D.R., Stover R.H., 2000. Fungal root rot. In Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset, D.R. Jones (ed.), pp. 162-163. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

Fusarium solani (Mart.) Sacc. (1881) (teleomorph: Nectria haematococca Berk. & Broome (1873)) [Diamond fruit spot (component); Fungal root rot; Root and rhizome rot - associated with nematodes]

Jones D.R., Stover R.H., 2000. Fungal root rot. In Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset, D.R. Jones (ed.), pp. 162-163. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

Jones D.R., Stover, R.H., 2000. Fungal diseases of banana fruit, preharvest diseases. In Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset, D.R. Jones (ed.), pp. 173-190. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

Pinochet J., 1979. Nematode-fungus associations in bananas and plantains. Journal of Nematology 11, 311-312.

Fusarium tricinctum (Corda) Sacc. (1886) [Central American fruit speckle (component)]

Jones D.R., Stover, R.H., 2000. Fungal diseases of banana fruit, preharvest diseases. In Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset, D.R. Jones (ed.), pp. 173-190. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

Glomerella cingulata (Stoneman) Spauld & Schrenk (1903) [Tip-end rot]

Jones D.R., Stover, R.H., 2000. Fungal diseases of banana fruit, preharvest diseases. In Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset, D.R. Jones (ed.), pp. 173-190. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

Guignardia musae Racib. (1909) (anamorph: Phyllosticta musarum (Cooke) Aa (1973)) [Freckle]

Jones D.R., 2000. Freckle. In Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset, D.R. Jones (ed.), pp.120-125. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

Jones D.R., Stover, R.H., 2000. Fungal diseases of banana fruit, preharvest diseases. In Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset, D.R. Jones (ed.), pp. 173-190. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

Meredith D.S., 1968. Freckle disease of banana in Hawaii caused by Phyllostictina musarum (Cke) Petr. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 62: 328-340.

Haplobasidion musae M. B. Ellis (1957) [Diamond leaf spot]

Firman, I.D., 1971. Banana leaf spot caused by Haplobasidion musae. PANS 17: 315-317.

Jones D.R., 2000. Malayan leaf spot. In Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset, D.R. Jones (ed.), pp. 105-107. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

Lasiodiplodia theobromae (Pat.) Griffon & Maubl. [Crown rot; Finger rot; Main stalk rot; Peduncle rot]

Jones D.R., Stover, R.H., 2000. Fungal diseases of banana fruit, preharvest diseases. In Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset, D.R. Jones (ed.), pp. 173-190. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

Muirhead I.F., Jones D.R., 2000. Fungal diseases of banana fruit, postharvest diseases. In Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset, D.R. Jones (ed.), pp. 190-206. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

Leptosphaeria musarum Sacc. & Berl. [Leaf spot of plantain]

Cardona R., Petit P., 1994. Leaf spot of plantain (Musa acuminata x Musa balbisiana, AAB) caused by Leptosphaeria musarum. Fitopatologia Venezolana 7: 26-27.

Marasmiellus inoderma (Berk.) Singer (1955) = Marasmius semiustus (Berk. & M. A. Curtis) Singer (1948) [Marasmiellus pseudostem and root rot]

Jones D.R., Lomerio E.O., 2000. Marasmiellus pseudostem and root rot. In Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset, D.R. Jones (ed.), pp. 163-166. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

Marasmiellus troyanus (Murr.) Sing. [Stem dry rot]

Ordosgoitty A., Santos R., Rondón A., Haddad O., 1972. Pudricon seca del tallo del platano causada por el honga Marasmiellus troyanus (Murr.) Sing. (a). Agronomia Tropical 24: 33-41.

Microxyphium sp. [Sooty mould]

Jones D.R., Stover, R.H., 2000. Fungal diseases of banana fruit, preharvest diseases. In Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset, D.R. Jones (ed.), pp. 173-190. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

Mycosphaerella eumusae Crous and Mourichon (2002) [Eumusae leaf spot; Mixed ripe fruit; Premature ripening]

Carlier J., Mourichon X., Jones D.R., 2000. Septoria leaf spot. In Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset, D.R. Jones (ed.), pp. 93-96. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

Carlier J., Zapater M., Lapeyre F., Jones D.R., Mourichon X., 2000. Septoria leaf spot of banana: a newly discovered disease caused by Mycosphaerella eumusae (anamorph Septoria eumusae) Phytopathology 90: 884-890.

Crous P., Mourichon X., 2002. Mycosphaerella eumusae and its anamorph Pseudocercospora eumusae spp. nov.: causal agent of eumusae leaf spot disease of banana. Sydowia 54: 35-43.

Mycosphaerella fijiensis M. Morelet (1969) (anamorph: Pseudocercospora fijiensis (M. Morelet) Deighton (1976) ) [Black leaf streak = Black Sigatoka leaf spot; Mixed ripe fruit; Premature ripening]

Carlier J., Fouré E., Gauhl F., Jones D.R., Lepoivre P., Mourichon X., Pasberg-Gauhl C., 2000. Black leaf streak. In Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset, D.R. Jones (ed.), pp. 37-79. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

Meredith D.S,. Lawrence J.S., 1969. Black leaf streak disease of bananas (Mycosphaerella fijiensis): Symptoms of disease in Hawaii, and notes on the conidial state of the causal fungus. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 52: 459-476.

Stover R.H., 1980. Sigatoka leaf spots of banana and plantain. Plant Disease 64: 750-755.

Mycosphaerella musae (Speg.) Syd. & P. Syd. (1917) [Mycosphaerella leaf speckle]

Jones D.R., 2000. Mycosphaerella speckle. In Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset, D.R. Jones (ed.), pp. 113-116. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

Pont W., 1960. Three leaf speckle diseases of the banana in Queensland. Queensland Journal of Agricultural Science 17: 271-309.

Stover R.H., 1969. The Mycosphaerella species associated with banana leaf spots. Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad) 46: 325-332.

Mycosphaerella musicola Leach (anamorph: Pseudocercospora musae (Zimm.) Deighton) [Mixed ripe fruit; Premature ripening; Sigatoka leaf spot = Yellow Sigatoka leaf spot)

Jones D.R., 2000. Sigatoka. In Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset, D.R. Jones (ed.), pp. 79-92. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

Meredith D.S., 1970. Banana Leaf Spot Disease (Sigatoka) caused by Mycosphaerella musicola Leach. Phytopathological Papers, No. 11, 147 pp. Kew, Surrey, UK: Commonwealth Mycological Institute.

Stover R.H., 1980. Sigatoka leaf spots of banana and plantain. Plant Disease 64: 750-755.

Nattrassia mangiferae (Syd. & P. Syd.) B. Sutton & Dyko (1989) = Hendersonula toruloidea Nattrass (1933) [Tip-end rot]

Jones D.R., Stover, R.H., 2000. Fungal diseases of banana fruit, preharvest diseases. In Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset, D.R. Jones (ed.), pp. 173-190. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

Meredith D.S., 1963. Tip rot of banana fruits in Jamaica. I. Hendersonula toruloidea on Dwarf Cavendish bananas. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 46: 473-481.

Nigrospora sphaerica (Sacc.) E. W. Mason (1927) = Nigrospora musae McLennan & Hoëtte = Nigrospora maydis (Garov.) Hol.-Jech (1963) [Black end; Squirter]

Muirhead I.F., Jones D.R., 2000. Fungal diseases of banana fruit, postharvest diseases. In Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset, D.R. Jones (ed.), pp. 190-206. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

Nigrospora spp. [Sooty mould]

Jones D.R., Stover, R.H., 2000. Fungal diseases of banana fruit, preharvest diseases. In Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset, D.R. Jones (ed.), pp. 173-190. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

Penicillium roseum Link (1816) [Central American fruit speckle (component)]

Jones D.R., Stover, R.H., 2000. Fungal diseases of banana fruit, preharvest diseases. In Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset, D.R. Jones (ed.), pp. 173-190. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

Pestalotiopsis disseminata (Thüm.) Steyaert (1949) [Fruit rot]

Roy A.K., Singh C.P., Singh D.K., 1989. Some unrecorded fruit rot diseases of banana. Indian Phytopathology 42: 202-203.

Pestalotiopsis leprogena (Speg.) Steyaert (1961) [Brown blotch]

Jones D.R., 2000. Pestalotiopsis leaf spot. In Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset, D.R. Jones (ed.), pp. 107-108. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

Pestalotiopsis palmarum (Cooke) Steyaert (1949) [Pestalotiopsis leaf spot]

Jones D.R., 2000. Pestalotiopsis leaf spot. In Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset, D.R. Jones (ed.), pp. 107-108. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

Phaeoseptoria musae Punith. (1977) [Phaeoseptoria leaf spot]

Jones D.R., 2000. Phaeoseptoria leaf spot. In Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset, D.R. Jones (ed.), pp. 92-93. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

Punithalingam E., 1976. A new species of Phaeoseptoria on Musa. Kew Bulletin 31: 469-470.

Raghunath T., 1963. A new leaf spot of banana from India. Plant Disease Reporter 47: 1084-1085.

Phyllachora musicola C. Booth & D. E. Shaw (1961) [Black cross leaf spot]

Booth C., Shaw D.E., 1961. Black cross, caused by a new species of Phyllachora on banana. Papua New Guinea Experimental Journal 13: 157-159.

Jones D.R., 2000. Black cross leaf spot. In Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset, D.R. Jones (ed.), pp. 97-99. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

Meredith D.S., 1969. A note on black cross disease caused by Phyllachora musicola. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 62: 328-340.

Pyricularia grisea Sacc. (1880) (teleomorph Magnaporthe grisea (T.T. Hebert) M.E. Barr (1977)) [Pitting]

Johnston J.R., 1932. The fruit spot of banana. Research Department Bulletin 43, United Fruit Company, Boston.

Jones D.R., Stover, R.H., 2000. Fungal diseases of banana fruit, preharvest diseases. In Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset, D.R. Jones (ed.), pp. 173-190. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

Ramichloridium musae (Stahel ex M. B. Ellis) de Hoog (1977) = Veronaea musae Stahel M. B. Ellis (1976) = Periconiella musae Stahel ex M. B. Ellis (1967) [Ramichloridium leaf speckle]

Jones D.R., 2000. Tropical Speckle. In Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset, D.R. Jones (ed.), pp. 116-120. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

Pont W., 1960. Three leaf speckle diseases of the banana in Queensland. Queensland Journal of Agricultural Science 17: 271-309.

Rhizoctonia spp. [Fungal root rot]

Jones D.R., Stover R.H., 2000. Fungal root rot. In Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset, D.R. Jones (ed.), pp. 162-163. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

Rosellinia bunodes (Berk. & Broome) Sacc. (1882) [Black root rot]

Jones D.R., 2000. Rosellinia root and corm rot. In Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset, D.R. Jones (ed.), p.160. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary (1884) [Tip-end rot]

Jones D.R., Stover, R.H., 2000. Fungal diseases of banana fruit, preharvest diseases. In Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset, D.R. Jones (ed.), pp. 173-190. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

Trachysphaera fructigena Tabor & Bunting (1923) [Cigar-end rot; Finger rot;]

Jones D.R., Stover, R.H., 2000. Fungal diseases of banana fruit, preharvest diseases. In Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset, D.R. Jones (ed.), pp. 173-190. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

Trichoderma sp. [Central American fruit speckle (component)]

Jones D.R., Stover, R.H., 2000. Fungal diseases of banana fruit, preharvest diseases. In Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset, D.R. Jones (ed.), pp. 173-190. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

Uredo musae Cummins (1941); Uromyces musae Henn. (1907) [Rust]

Firman I.D. , 1976. Banana rust in Fiji and other Pacific Islands. Fiji Agricultural Journal 38: 85-86.

Jones D.R., 2000. Rust. In Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset, D.R. Jones (ed.), pp. 125-127. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

Verticillium sp. [Crown rot]

Muirhead I.F., Jones D.R., 2000. Fungal diseases of banana fruit, postharvest diseases. In Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset, D.R. Jones (ed.), pp. 190-206. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

Verticillium theobromae (Turconi) E. W. Mason & S. J. Hughes (1951) [Black-tip; Cigar end rot; Crown rot; Peduncle rot]

Jones D.R., Stover, R.H., 2000. Fungal diseases of banana fruit, preharvest diseases. In Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset, D.R. Jones (ed.), pp. 173-190. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

Meredith D.S., 1965. Tip rot of banana fruits in Jamaica II. Verticillium theobromae and Fusarium spp. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 48: 327-336.

Muirhead I.F., Jones D.R., 2000. Fungal diseases of banana fruit, postharvest diseases. In Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset, D.R. Jones (ed.), pp. 190-206. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

Zythia sp. [Root rot]

Kobenan K., Ake S., Kone D., Kehe M., 1997. Zythia sp. (Ascomycotina), a causal agent of root necrosis in bananas (Musa sp., AAA) cv. Grande Naine. Cahiers Agricultures 6: 91-96.

VIRUSES

Banana bract mosaic virus [Bract mosaic]

Magnaye L.V., Espino R.R.C., 1990. Note: banana bract mosaic, a new disease of banana. I. symptomatology. The Philippine Agriculturist 73:55-59.

Rodoni B.C., Dale J.L., Harding R.M., 1999. Characterization and expression of the coat protein-coding region of banana bract mosaic potyvirus, development of diagnostic assays and detection of the virus in banana plants from five countries in southeast Asia. Archives of Virology 144:1725-1737.

Thomas J.E., Iskra-Caruana M.-L., Magnaye L.V., Jones D.R., 2000. Bract mosaic. In Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset, D.R. Jones (ed.), pp. 253-255. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

Thomas J.E., Geering A.D.W., Gambley C.F., Kessling A.F., White M., 1997. Purification, properties and diagnosis of banana bract mosaic potyvirus and its distinction from abaca mosaic potyvirus. Phytopathology 87:698-705.

Banana bunchy top virus [Bunchy top]

Dale J.L., 1987. Banana bunchy top: an economically important tropical plant virus disease. Advances in Virus Research 33:301-325.

Magee C.J.P., 1953. Some aspects of the bunchy top disease of banana and other Musa spp. Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales 87:3-18.

Magee C.J.P., 1927. Investigation on the bunchy top disease of the banana, Bulletin No. 30. Melbourne, Australia: Council for Scientific and Industrial Research.

Thomas J.E., Iskra-Caruana M.-L., 2000. Bunchy top. In Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset, D.R.

Jones (ed.), pp. 241-253. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

Banana mild mosaic virus [Mild mosaic]

Gambley C.F., Thomas J.E., 2001. Molecular characterisation of Banana mild mosaic virus, a new filamentous virus in Musa spp. Archives of Virology 146:1369-1379.

Thomas J.E., Lockhart B.E.L., Iskra-Caruana M.-L., 2000. Banana mild mosaic. In Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset, D. R. Jones (ed.), pp. 275-278. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

Banana streak virus [Streak]

Geering A.D.W., McMichael L. A, Dietzgen R.G., Thomas, J.E., 2000. Genetic diversity among Banana streak virus isolates from Australia. Phytopathology 90:921-927.

Geering A.D.W., Thomas J.E., 2002. Banana streak virus [AAB Description of plant viruses on CD-ROM and the World Wide Web]. Association of Applied Biologists, 2002 [cited in press]. Available from www.res.bbsrc.ac.uk/dpv/index.htm.

Harper G., Hull R., Lockhart B., Olszewski, N., 2002. Viral sequences integrated into plant genomes. Annual Review of Phytopathology 40:119-136.

Lassoudière A., 1974. La mosaïque dite «a tirets» du bananier 'Poyo' en Côte d'Ivoire. Fruits 29:349-357.

Lockhart B.E.L., Jones D.R., 2000. Banana streak. In Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset, D. R. Jones (ed.), pp. 263-274. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Lockhart B.E.L., 1986. Purification and serology of bacilliform virus associated with banana streak disease. Phytopathology 76:995-999.

Cucumber mosaic virus [Mosaic]

Diekmann, M., Putter C.A.J.(eds) ,1996. FAO/IPGRI Technical Guidelines for the Safe Movement of Germplasm, 2nd edn, Musa. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations / International Plant Genetic Resources Institute.

Lockhart B.E.L, Jones D.R.., 2000. Banana mosaic. In Diseases of Banana, Abacá and Enset, D.R. Jones (ed.), pp. 256-263. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

Magee C.J.P. 1940. Transmission of infectious chlorosis or heart-rot of the banana and its relationship to cucumber mosaic. The Journal of the Australian Institute of Agricultural Science 6:44-47.

Yot-Dauthy D., Bové, J. M., 1966. Mosaïque du bananier: Identification et purification de diveres souches du virus. Fruits 21:449-466.

UNKNOWN AGENTS

Unknown [False Panama disorder]

Nematode infestation, soil compaction, waterlogging, insufficient irrigation and insufficient fertilizer application (stress factors) have been implicated as possible causes.

Deacon J.W., Herbert J.A., Dames J., 1985. Fals [sic] Panama disorder of bananas. Subtropica 6:15-18.

de Beer Z., Hernández J. M., Sabadel, S., 2001. False Panama Disorder on Banana. Musa Disease Factsheet No. 9. Montpellier, France: International Network for the Improvrement of Banana and Plantain.