|INTERNATIONAL NEWSLETTER ON PLANT PATHOLOGY|
|ISPP Newsletter 47 (4) April 2017|
News and announcements from all on any aspect of Plant Pathology are invited for the
Newsletter. Contributions from the ISPP Executive,
Council and Subject Matter Committees, Associated Societies and Supporting Organisations are requested.
|Editor: Daniel Hüberli (email)|
|Subscribe to the ISPP Newsletter by joining the ISPP mail list|
|In this issue:|
|Deadline for nominations for the ISPP Executive changed to 20 April 2017|
The call for nominations of candidates for election to the 2018-2023 ISPP
Executive Committee has been posted to all constituent societies of the ISPP.
This election occurs once every 5 years, in accordance with the ISPP Rules of
Procedure. Nominations are being sought for the positions of ISPP President,
Vice-President, Secretary-General and Treasurer.
A Nomination Committee has been formed, consisting of highly respected plant pathologists representing different regions of the world, and chaired by Prof M Lodovica Gullino (ISPP Immediate Past President). The Committee will select two candidates for each position from the nominations received. The selected candidates will go forward to the full election, which will be a ballot of all ISPP Councilors.
Potential nominees must firstly agree to be nominated, and be aware of the time commitments and responsibilities involved with the respective positions. Short-listed nominees will be asked to provide a short written summary of their background and how they might serve in the position for which they have been nominated. Nominees should also be willing and aware of their responsibilities to ISPP and Associated Societies in fulfilling the duties of the positions These will include participation at the International Congresses of Plant Pathology, in 2018 (Boston, USA) and 2023 (Lyon, France), and being able to commit 70 to 150 h per year for ISPP Executive service. Nominators and potential nominees should view information on the ISPP (http://www.isppweb.org/about_objectives.asp ), and consider the duties and responsibilities of the Executive as outlined in the ISPP statutes and rules of procedure: http://www.isppweb.org/about_objectives_statutes.asp .
Nominations should be sent directly to Prof M Lodovica Gullino (firstname.lastname@example.org), or through a representative of an Associated Society (see http://www.isppweb.org/about_associated_eng.asp). Names and full contact details (including e-mail addresses), along with evidence of each nominee's willingness to serve if elected, should be provided. Nominations should be received by 20 April 2017.
|International Congress of Plant Pathology ICPP2018 program update|
|Planning for the scientific program and activities at the International Congress of Plant Pathology (ICPP2018) - Plant Health in the Global Economy during 29 July to 3August, 2018 are well advanced. The draft program is at: http://www.icpp2018.org/program/Pages/default.aspx.|
|ISPP Global Crop Loss Survey: An overview of results|
Over a period of three months (November 2016 - January 2017), 1142 responses
from 216 respondents in 67 countries were recorded during the Global Crop Loss
Survey organized by the Crop Loss Subject Matter Committee of the ISPP. This
appears to be the first Survey of this kind ever conducted.
This short note is intended to provide an overview of contributions by crops and countries, to report some emerging features of the data, and to highlight the size of this collective effort through the list of contributors.
Contributions to the Survey
Five major global crops were considered in the Survey: Wheat, Rice, Maize, Potato, and Soybean. The total numbers of contributions by crops were: 368, 297, 151, 180, and 146 for these five crops, respectively. The overall Survey output is truly global as the map in Figure 1 shows. While four countries - the USA, India, Brazil, and Australia, in that order - provided substantial contributions, a good coverage of response for Eastern Asia, Southeast Asia, Europe, and South America was achieved. The coverage of Africa appears the weakest (as is apparent on the map), but nevertheless corresponds to an encouraging total of 96 responses.
Figure 1. Number of unique respondents1 per country2
1 Note that a respondent can represent one or more responses.
2 The boundaries, colours, denominations, and other information shown on this map do not imply any judgment on the part of the ISPP or the authors or the respondents concerning the legal status of any territory or the endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries.
|Further details on the distribution of responses are provided in Table 1. Contributions by country, expressed as numbers of responses, varied with crops, although there is a consistent group of countries with a high frequency of contributions across all five crops. The ten countries which generated the highest overall number of responses are listed at the end of Table 1. When weighted against their agricultural productions, the levels of contributions by country are quite different. Irrespective of the ranking criterion, a good mix of responses from developed, emerging, and developing countries was received. Similarly, there is a good coverage across ecoregions of the world.|
Table 1. Responses per country1,2 and responses per million tons of production per country3
1 Top five countries shown for each crop, and top ten countries for
all crops combined.
2 The names in this table do not imply any judgment on the part of the ISPP or the authors or the respondents concerning the legal status of any territory or the endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries.
3 Responses per production only consider countries with at least 1 million tons of production for that crop based on FAOSTAT averages 2010-2014.
Which are the most important diseases and pests?
The five most cited diseases and pests on the five different crops are listed in Table 2. The five lists account for the varying levels of consideration among experts, with respect to diseases and pests in each crop. Depending on the crop, some diseases appear to dominate to varying degrees; Leaf and panicle blast dominate reports in Rice, and reports for Potato are very strongly dominated by late blight. In contrast, responses for Maize are more evenly distributed among various diseases and pests. Table 2 only reflects the volume of information collected on each disease or pest, not their importance in terms of crop losses.
|Table 2 Number of responses recorded for the most cited diseases and pests per crop|
1 Number of responses
2 Fusarium head blight
3 Fusarium and Gibberella
There are many ways to address the importance of crop diseases and pests. The
Survey has generated information on the magnitude of crop losses, in five
categories (less than 1%, 1 to 5%, 5 to 20%, 20 to 60%, and more than 60%
losses), and on the frequency of these losses, in four categories (every season,
one season in two, one season in five, and less than one season in five). This
will enable different approaches to quantify crop losses.
At this stage, a key question concerns the overall representativeness of the information gathered. Across all five crops, experts have reported losses lower than 1% in 15.4% of the cases, between 1 and 5% in 37.3% of the cases, between 5 and 20% in 33.7% of the cases, between 20 and 60% in 11.5% of the cases, and higher than 60% in 2.1% of the cases. A simple aggregate weighted average of these losses, in which loss levels are weighted by their reported frequencies, gives an overall crop loss of 11.7%. This figure would represent the average loss caused by an average disease (or pest), (1) when occurring, and (2) in the absence of any other disease or pest. Although a preliminary result, the estimated average loss is well within the ranges of global or regional crop losses that have been reported in the literature.
Preliminary analyses suggest that the data collected are sufficiently robust and representative to warrant more detailed investigation. This Survey is important for a number of reasons: its international reach, the procedure it has followed, and the targeted crops. Another important element of this Survey is that it was conducted on five different crops simultaneously, which will facilitate cross comparisons. Work is under way on these analyses.
Who contributed to the Survey?
The table below provides the list of contributors and their institutions, based on those who provided name and institute information.
We wish to thank Greg Johnson, President of the ISPP, and Daniel Hüberli, ISPP Newsletter Editor, for the instrumental and friendly support they have been giving to this project all along.
S. Savary, INRA, Centre INRA de Toulouse, France; Chair, Crop Loss Subject Matter Committee of the ISPP;
A. Nelson, ITC, University of Twente, The Netherlands;
L. Willocquet, INRA, Centre INRA de Toulouse, France ;
Sarah Pethybridge, Cornell University, USA;
Asimina Mila, North Carolina State University, USA;
Paul Esker, University of Costa Rica;
Neil McRoberts, UC Davis, USA.
|Janaki Ammal is the reason your sugar tastes sweeter|
"In recognition of international women's day held on 8 March every year is this
inspiring story of a woman who braved a largely patriarchal, ultra-conservative
society to fulfil her academic dreams."
One of the first women scientists to receive the Padma Shri way back in 1977, Edavaleth Kakkat Janaki Ammal lived a life only a handful of other women of her time lived. In an age when most Indian women didn't make it past high school, Janaki Ammal didn't just obtain a PhD at one of America's finest public universities, she went on to make seminal contributions to her field. She also remains one of the few Asian women to be conferred an honorary doctorate (DSc. honoris causa) by her alma mater, the University of Michigan, and that was in 1931!
A pioneering botanist and cytogeneticist, Janaki Ammal is credited with putting sweetness in India's sugarcane varieties, speaking against the hydro-electric project in Kerala's Silent Valley and the phenomenal study of chromosomes of thousands of species of flowering plants. There is even a flower named after her, a delicate bloom in pure white called Magnolia Kobus Janaki Ammal.
Yet, at a time when the country is focussing on educating the girl child, Janaki Ammal's contribution to Indian botanical research remains mostly unknown outside academic circles. This is the story of an extraordinary Indian woman who braved a largely patriarchal, ultra-conservative society to fulfil her academic dreams.
Read this inspiring story.
(Sanchari Pal, The Better India, 16 November 2016)
|Plant Pathology in the 21st Century ISPP and Springer book series|
ISPP is pleased to announce the broadening of the book series
Plant Pathology in the 21st
Under an agreement with Springer, the book series based on the invited lectures at the 9th International Congress of Plant Pathology ICPP2008, was initiated and four books covering key themes were published. Three additional volumes in the series were published on themes which were key topics at ICPP2013, held in Beijing, China. In light of the initial seven volumes' success, the ISPP has reached an agreement with Springer to broaden the scope of the series and publish additional volumes.
The aim of the series is to highlight the latest international findings and advances in plant pathology and plant medicine. ISPP Subject Matter Committees representatives, plant pathology topic specialists and workshop organisers are invited to consult with the Series Editor, Prof M Lodovica Gullino (email@example.com), regarding their topic's potential inclusion in the series.
|Plasma prevents food from spoiling|
Kirsty Bayliss from Murdoch University is using plasma and electrical currents
to stop mould from taking hold on fresh food, bread, meats, grains, and dairy
products such as milk and cheese. The technology also kills bacteria associated
with food-borne illness, such as salmonella and listeria.
The technology - which is already widely used in medicine and dentistry - works by producing plasma generated by an electrical charge, conducted through two electrodes using the air around us. This then produces a plasma flame which is applied to food.
"That plasma coats the surface of the food, and what you do when you treat that surface is kill the mould spores on the surface so they can't infect the fruit," Dr Bayliss said. "It seems to be stimulating the resistance response in the fruit as well so it's actually defending itself against infection - it's really clever and completely chemically free,"
Dr Bayliss says the technology could lead to a massive reduction in food waste. Right now more than 30 per cent of purchased food in Australia ends up in the bin. "Food wastage contributes to a lot of the food insecurity - a developed country such as the US or Europe wastes around 100 kilograms of food per person every year.
The researchers are taking their work to San Francisco to pitch it to industry and philanthropists to improve global health outcomes, and have even had interest from NASA to help with their space exploration.
(Sarah Collard, ABC News, 22 March 2017)
|Milton Zaitlin (1927 - 2016)|
Milton Zaitlin, professor emeritus of plant pathology, died 11 October, 2016, in
Ithaca, New York. He was 89.
Zaitlin, who joined Cornell University, Ithaca, Department of Plant Pathology in 1973, was an influential pioneer of plant virology research. He made important contributions to the study of virus replication and tobacco mosaic virus, a pathogen that infects a wide range of plants in the nightshade family (Solanaceae). He also added to the understanding of virions and viroids, among other areas. As an instructor, he taught courses in plant virology, plant-virus interactions and plant biotechnology.
"Milt's reputation attracted many postdocs and sabbatical visitors representing a broad cross-section of the international community," said Peter Palukaitis, an adjunct professor of plant pathology at Cornell, who is also currently a professor of horticultural sciences in the Seoul Women's University in Seoul, South Korea. Palukaitis is a former postdoctoral researcher and faculty member in the former Department of Plant Pathology, where he was a colleague of Zaitlin's. "Milt was an excellent mentor and good friend to all, and he maintained long-term relationships with many of those who passed through his lab," he said.
Zaitlin received his bachelor's degree in plant pathology from the University of California, Berkeley, in 1949 and earned a doctorate in botanical sciences from the University of California, Los Angeles, in 1954. Zaitlin served as a research officer at the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) in Canberra, Australia (1954-58); an assistant professor of horticulture at the University of Missouri, Columbia (1958-60); and as a professor of agricultural biochemistry at the University of Arizona, Tucson.
During a sabbatical leave in 1966-67, Zaitlin was supported by a Fulbright scholarship and Guggenheim fellowship to work at the CSIRO Division of Plant Industry. Two more sabbaticals took him to the Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics at University of California, Davis, in 1979-80, and at the John Innes Institute in Norwich, U.K., in 1986-87.
Zaitlin authored and co-authored more than 30 review articles, many of which influenced the development of the study of plant pathology. He served twice as an associate editor of the journal Virology (1966-71 and 1982-84), and as editor for plant viruses (1972-81). He was also the first senior editor for virus-plant interactions in the journal Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions (1987-90). He was a founding member of American Society for Virology and organised the society's first meeting at Cornell in 1982 and its 10th meeting in 1992.
Zaitlin was elected as a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (1969) and the American Phytopathological Society (1978), from which he received the APS Award of Distinction (2006).
Zaitlin is survived by his wife of 65 years, Marjorie, four children, six grandchildren and one great-grandchild.
Zaitlin extensive career is highlighted on the APS Award of Distinction.
(Krishna Ramanujan, Cornell Chronicle, 28 March 2017)
|IV International Symposium on Postharvest Pathology - draft programme available|
|Program for the IV International Symposium on Postharvest Pathology to be held at Kruger National Park, South Africa during 28 May to 3 June, 2017 is now available on the updated website, www.postharvest2017.co.za.|
|Science Protecting Plant Health 2017 - speakers list|
|Plenary and keynote speakers for the Science Protecting Plant Health 2017, a joint conference of the Australasian Plant Pathology Society and the Plant Biosecurity Cooperative Research Centre, to be held in Brisbane, Australia during 26-28 September 2017 has been listed on the website, www.sciplant2017.com.au.|
|Royal rivalry over the safety of GM farming fuel letters to Editor|
An article in The Times dated 22 March 2017 titled "Princess backs GM" has
resulted in several letters to the Editor being published the following day,
including one by Richard Strange.
Sir, Wouldn't the whole GM debate be defused if it were recognised that genetic modification is merely a technique which, like so many other techniques, may be used for good or ill? Thus it is the product that should be carefully scrutinised rather than the technique by which it was obtained. In the case of crop plants, wouldn't it be good to alleviate the "hidden hunger" suffered by an estimated two billion of the world's population owing to vitamin or micronutrient deficiencies? This could be done effectively and safely by introducing the appropriate genes into the plants they eat.
Richard Strange Editor-in-chief, Food Security
(The Times, 23 March 2017)
|Phytophthora cinnamomi A1: An ancient resident of New Guinea and Australia|
A paper by Frans Arentz titled "Phytophthora cinnamomi A1: An
ancient resident of New Guinea and Australia of Gondwanan origin?" was
published in February 2017 by Forest Pathology (early view). The abstract is
This article re-examines the hypothesis, first proposed by Shepherd (Search, 6(11-12), 1975, 484), that Phytophthora cinnamomi is an ancient organism in Australia and New Guinea. It further evaluates data that suggest the A1 mating type is Gondwanan in origin and may have been present in New Guinea for up to 10 million years. It is postulated that there has been a mating type change in P. cinnamomi from A1 to A2 in relatively recent times as a result of genetic transformation of the A1 mating type.
|Genetically engineered potatoes approved for planting|
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) approved the planting of
three types of genetically engineered (GE) potatoes that resist
Phytophthora infestans, the pathogen that caused the Irish potato
famine. According to EPA, the GE potatoes are safe for the environment and
safe to eat.
The GE potatoes were developed by J.R. Simplot Co. According to Simplot, the GE potatoes only contain potato genes and that the resistance to late blight trait originated from an Argentine potato variety that naturally exhibited defense against the pathogen.
The decision by EPA is consistent with the safety clearance given by Food and Drug Administration in January 2017.
Read more from AP.
(Crop Biotech Update, 1 March 2017)
|Novel virus breaks barriers between incompatible fungi|
A virus that can weaken the ability of a fungus to avoid pairing with other
incompatible fungi has been identified and is published in
By promoting fungal pairing, the virus could aid transmission of additional
unrelated viruses between fungi.
While studying Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, which infects hundreds of plant species worldwide, Jiatao Xie of Huazhong Agricultural University, China, and colleagues discovered a virus they named Sclerotinia sclerotiorum mycoreovirus 4 (SsMYRV4). To better understand this novel virus, they grew infected S. sclerotiorum alongside other vegetatively incompatible strains and investigated the molecular effects.
The researchers found that SsMYRV4 decreased expression of S. sclerotiorum genes that promote vegetative incompatibility. Vegetative incompatibility is a molecular process that normally causes cell death when two incompatible strains touch each other; in this study, Xie's team found a reduction in the amount of cell death that normally occurs in intermingled colonies of incompatible strains.
S. sclerotiorum infected with SsMYRV4 successfully made connections with incompatible strains by fusing filamentous structures known as hyphae. To investigate the consequences, the scientists grew SsMYRV4-infected fungi alongside fungi infected with other unrelated viruses. They found that the unrelated viruses were able to pass through the fused hyphae, crossing between fungal pairs. Vegetative incompatibility is considered a significant obstacle to using viruses to effectively control fungal diseases. These new findings could point to a new strategy that uses SsMYRV4 to weaken barriers between fungi. They could also improve understanding of virus ecology and evolution.
(Phys.org News, 23 March 2017)
|Estimate iPad app|
A new iPad app, called Estimate, connects plant professionals with a
portable database of photographs of diseased leaves to help determine plant
Estimate relies on Standard Area Diagrams (SADs), a series of photographs of diseased leaves, with each photo containing a leaf incrementally more diseased than the previous one. Each SAD shows disease severity in terms of the percent of the leaf that is diseased. Users then examine a leaf in the field, for example, and compare and match it with SADs to estimate the disease severity.
The app comes with an initial set of SADs of yellow and red table beet leaves affected by Cercospora leaf spot, a fungal disease that affects beets, chards and spinach. Pethybridge and Nelson hope to offer sets of SADs for five other vegetable diseases within the Estimate app by next year.
The new app expands on a previous app developed by Nelson called Leaf Doctor, which allows users to take a photo of a diseased leaf with an iPhone or iPad. The app quantifies the percentage of disease on that leaf. This algorithm allowed the creation of new, realistic SADs based on digital images. Pethybridge and Nelson will work with users to develop SADs for use in Estimate, based on their needs and diseases of interest.
Estimate lets users interactively edit or save data for future reference, verification and study. The app will also email the information for use in spreadsheets for statistical analysis.
Users can enter data as single samples from the field or they may group data according to a plot or subplot in a field experiment, such as when researchers have trial plots to test the efficacy of a fungicide or other treatment, for example.
The app is available for free download from iTunes and is compatible with an iPad Air 2 or equivalent using iOS 9.0 or greater.
(Krishna Ramanujan, Cornell Chronicle, 6 March 2017)
|Thanks to Grahame Jackson, Greg Johnson, Serge Savary and Peter Williamson for contributions.|
2nd International Workshop on Barley Leaf Diseases
5 April - 7 April, 2017
Website: click here
Population Genomics of Fungal and Oomycete Pathogens of Animals and Plants
7 May - 11 May, 2017
Monte Verita Conference Center, Ascona, Switzerland
Contact Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
IV International Symposium on Postharvest Pathology
28 May - 3 June, 2017
Kruger National Park, South Africa
Contact Email: email@example.com
Joint 12th European Foundation for Plant Pathology (EFPP) and the 10th French Society for Plant Pathology (SFP) conference on "Deepen knowledge in Plant Pathology for innovative Agroecology"
29 May - 2 June, 2017
Contact Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
24th International Council for the Study of Virus and Other Graft-Transmissible Diseases of Fruit Crops
5 June - 9 June, 2017
15th Congress of the Mediterranean Phytopathological Union - Plant health sustaining Mediterranean Ecosystems
20 June - 23 June, 2017
Fusarium Laboratory Workshop
25 June - 30 June, 2017
Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, USA
10th International Workshop on Grapevine Trunk Diseases
4 July - 7 July, 2017
8th International Workshop on Grapevine Downy and Powdery Mildew
17 July - 20 July, 2017
Corvallis, Oregon, USA
American Phytopathological Society (APS) Annual Meeting
5 August - 9 August, 2017
San Antonio, Texas, USA
IX International Symposium on Kiwifruit
6 September - 9 September, 2017
BSPP Presidential Conference 2017 - Fungal Control and Exploitation
11 September - 13 September, 2017
University of Nottingham, Jubilee Campus, UK
Asian Conference on Plant Pathology
13 September - 16 September, 2017
Jeju Island, South Korea
Science Protecting Plant Health 2017
A joint conference of the Australasian Plant Pathology Society and the Plant Biosecurity Cooperative Research Centre
26 September - 28 September, 2017
Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
International Conference on Global Crop Losses caused by Diseases, Pests, and Weeds
16 October - 18 October, 2017
INRA, Paris, France
Indian Society of Mycology and Plant Pathology International Conference - Plant Health for Human Welfare
1 November - 3 November, 2017
University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, India
12th Arab Congress of Plant Protection
5 November - 9 November, 2017
Cairo, Egypt Contact: 12th ACPP
Secretariat Email: email@example.com
28 November - 30 November, 2017
Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Herts, UK
3rd International Conference on Global Food Security
3 December - 6 December, 2017
Cape Town, South Africa
miCROPe 2017 an International Symposium on Microbe-Assisted Crop Production - Opportunities, challenges and needs
4 December - 7 December, 2017
2nd International Soilborne Oomycete Conference
5 December - 7 December, 2017
Islamorada, Florida, USA
9th International Integrated Pest Management Symposium
19 March - 22 March, 2018
Baltimore, Maryland, USA
11th International Congress of Plant Pathology (ICPP2018)
29 July - 3 August, 2018
Boston, Massachusetts, USA
12th International Congress of Plant Pathology
20 August - 25 August, 2023
15th International Cereal Rust and Powdery Mildew Conference
23 September - 27 September, 2018
Kruger National Park, South Africa
return to top|