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Names of Plant Pathogenic Bacteria, 1864-2004

Acetobacter - Curtobacterium

Acetobacter Beijerinck 1898

Acetobacter aceti (Pasteur 1864) Beijerinck 1898

ATCC 15973; ICMP 8807; LMG 1261

Acetobacter pasteurianus (Hansen 1879) Beijerinck & Folpmers 1916

= [Pseudomonas pomi Cole 1959] not valid Dhanvantari et al. (1978) refers

Pathogenic reference strain: ATCC 19877; ICMP 3878; LMG 1805; NCPPB 463

Acidovorax Willems, Falsen, Pot, Jantzen, Hoste, Vandamme, Gillis, Kersters & De Ley 1990

Acidovorax anthurii Gardan, Dauga, Prior, Gillis & Saddler 2000

            CFBP 3232, ICMP 13404

Acidovorax avenae (Manns 1909) Willems, Goor, Thielemans, Gillis, Kersters & De Ley 1992

= Pseudomonas avenae Manns 1909

= Pseudomonas avenae subsp. avenae Manns 1909

= Pseudomonas rubrilineans (Lee, Purdy, Barnum & Martin 1925) Stapp 1928

ATCC 19860; CFBP 2425; ICMP 3183; LMG 2117; NCPPB 1011

Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae (Manns 1909) Willems, Goor, Thielemans, Gillis, Kersters & De Ley 1992

= Pseudomonas avenae Manns 1909

= Pseudomonas avenae subsp. avenae Manns 1909

= Pseudomonas rubrilineans (Lee, Purdy, Barnum & Martin 1925) Stapp 1928

ATCC 19860; CFBP 2425; ICMP 3183; LMG 2117; NCPPB 1011

Acidovorax avenae subsp. cattleyae (Pavarino 1911) Willems, Goor, Thielemans, Gillis, Kersters & De Ley 1992

= Pseudomonas cattleyae (Pavarino 1911) Săvulescu 1947

ATCC 33619; CFBP 2423; ICMP 2826; LMG 2364; NCPPB 961

Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Schaad, Sowell, Goth, Colwell & Webb 1978) Willems, Goor, Thielemans, Gillis, Kersters & De Ley 1992

= Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes subsp. citrulli Schaad, Sowell, Goth, Colwell & Webb 1978

= Pseudomonas avenae subsp. citrulli (Schaad, Sowell, Goth, Colwell & Webb 1978) Hu, Young & Triggs 1991

ATCC 29625; ICMP 7500; LMG 5376; NCPPB 3679

Acidovorax konjaci (Goto 1983b) Willems, Goor, Thielemans, Gillis, Kersters & De Ley 1992

= Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes subsp. konjaci Goto 1983b

= Pseudomonas avenae subsp. konjaci (Goto 1983b) Hu, Young & Triggs 1991

ATCC 33996; ICMP 7733; LMG 5691; NCPPB 3698

Acidovorax valerianellae Gardan, Stead, Dauga, & Gillis 2003

CFBP 4730; NCPPB 4238

Agrobacterium Conn 1942

            The genus Agrobacterium is represented by species that are indistinguishable from members of Rhizobium except that they are pathogenic, producing rhizogenic growths or oncogenic galls rather than symbiotic nodules (Young et al. 2001a). Characterization of the genus is based on pathogenicity characters encoded by genes borne on transmissible elements. The nomenclature of the genus is validly published although its function as a special-purpose nomenclature should be understood (Young et al. 2003). The application of species names, radiobacter, rhizogenes and tumefaciens, may refer to the non-pathogenic, rhizogenic or tumorigenic species respectively (Kersters & De Ley 1984). Alternatively, they may be refer to the natural species, A. rhizogenes and A. tumefaciens (with A. radiobacter as a synonym) (Bradbury 1986; Holmes 1988; Holmes & Roberts 1981; Moore et al. 2001;Young et al. 2005), tumourigenic and rhizogenic capability of strains being indicated (Holmes & Roberts, 1981) by designation as Ti or Ri, respectively (Young et al. 2005).

see Rhizobium

Agrobacterium larrymoorei Bouzar & Jones 2001

see Rhizobium larrymoorei

Agrobacterium radiobacter (Beijerinck & van Delden 1902) Conn 1942

see Rhizobium radiobacter

Agrobacterium rhizogenes (Riker, Banfield, Wright, Keitt & Sagen 1930) Conn 1942

see Rhizobium rhizogenes

Agrobacterium rubi (Hildebrand 1940) Starr & Weiss 1943

see Rhizobium rubi

Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Smith & Townsend 1907) Conn 1942

see Rhizobium radiobacter

Agrobacterium vitis Ophel & Kerr 1990

see Rhizobium vitis

Arthrobacter Conn & Dimmick 1947

Arthrobacter ilicis (Mandel, Guba & Litsky 1961) Collins, Jones & Kroppenstedt 1982

            A. ilicis is a validly named species, but is probably not a plant pathogenic bacterium (Young et al. 2004).

see Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pv. ilicis

Bacillus Cohn 1872

Bacillus megaterium De Bary 1884

Bacillus megaterium pv. cerealis Hosford 1982

ATCC 35075; ICMP 8877

Bacillus pumilus Meyer & Gottheill 1901

            Reported in Saleh et al. (1997). No pathogenic reference strain is recorded.

Brenneria Hauben, Moore, Vauterin, Steenackers, Mergaert, Verdonck & Swings 1999

            = Erwinia Winslow, Broadhurst, Buchanan, Krumweide, Rogers & Smith 1920

            The homogeneity of genera in the Enterobacteriaceae that contain pathogens of plants and animals and from other environments has been discussed (Brenner et al. 1984). There is no recorded phenotypic circumscription of Brenneria that distinguishes it from other genera in the Enterobacteriaceae. Recognition of the genus Brenneria is based solely on comparative analysis of 16S rDNA sequence data that shows sequences representing Brenneria spp. as a separate clade within the Enterobacteriaceae.

Brenneria alni (Surico, Mugnai, Pastorelli, Giovannetti & Stead 1996) Hauben, Moore, Vauterin, Steenackers, Mergaert, Verdonck & Swings 1999

            = Erwinia alni Surico, Mugnai, Pastorelli, Giovannetti & Stead 1996

            ICMP 12481; NCPPB 3934

Brenneria nigrifluens (Wilson, Starr & Berger 1957) Hauben, Moore, Vauterin, Steenackers, Mergaert, Verdonck & Swings 1999

            = Erwinia nigrifluens Wilson, Starr & Berger 1957

            ATCC 13028; ICMP 1578; LMG 2694; NCPPB 564

Brenneria paradisiaca (Fernandez-Borrero & Lopez-Duque 1970) Hauben, Moore, Vauterin, Steenackers, Mergaert, Verdonck & Swings 1999

            = Erwinia chrysanthemi pv. paradisiaca (Victoria & Barros 1969) Dickey & Victoria 1980

            = Erwinia paradisiaca (Fernandez-Borrero & Lopez-Duque 1970) Dickey & Victoria 1980

            ICMP 2811; ICMP 2349; LMG 2545; NCPPB 2511

Brenneria quercina (Hildebrand & Schroth 1967) Hauben, Moore, Vauterin, Steenackers, Mergaert, Verdonck & Swings 1999

            = Erwinia quercina Hildebrand & Schroth 1967

            ATCC 29281; ICMP 1845; LMG 2724; NCPPB 1852

Brenneria rubrifaciens (Wilson, Zeitoun & Fredrickson 1967) Hauben, Moore, Vauterin, Steenackers, Mergaert, Verdonck & Swings 1999

            = Erwinia rubrifaciens Wilson, Zeitoun & Fredrickson 1967

            ATCC 29291; CFBP 1283; ICMP 1915; LMG 2709; NCPPB 2020

Brenneria salicis (Day 1924) Hauben, Moore, Vauterin, Steenackers, Mergaert, Verdonck & Swings 1999

            ATCC 15712; CFBP 802; ICMP 1587; LMG 2698; NCPPB 447

Burkholderia Yabuuchi, Kosako, Oyaizu, Yano, Hotta, Hashimoto, Ezaki & Arakawa 1993 emend. Gillis, Van Van, Bardin, Goor, Hebbar, Willems, Segers, Kersters, Heulin & Fernandez 1995

Burkholderia andropogonis (Smith 1911) Gillis, Van Van, Bardin, Goor, Hebbar, Willems, Segers, Kersters, Heulin & Fernanadez 1995

= Pseudomonas andropogonis (Smith 1911) Stapp 1928

= Pseudomonas woodsii (Smith 1911) Stevens 1925

ATCC 23061; CFBP 2421; ICMP 2807; LMG 2129; NCPPB 934

Burkholderia caryophylli (Burkholder 1942) Yabuuchi, Kosako, Oyaizu, Yano, Hotta, Hashimoto, Ezaki & Arakawa 1993

= Pseudomonas caryophylli (Burkholder 1942) Starr & Burkholder 1942

ATCC 25418; CFBP 2429; ICMP 512; LMG 2155; NCPPB 2151

Yabuuchi et al. (1992) proposed the new combination, B. caryophylli, and this name was subsequently reported in the International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology (Yabuuchi et al. 1993), but they did not include the type strain in their investigation, thus raising doubts as to the validity of their proposal.

Burkholderia cepacia (Palleroni & Holmes 1981 ex Burkholder 1950) Yabuuchi, Kosako, Oyaizu, Yano, Hotta, Hashimoto, Ezaki & Arakawa 1993

            = Pseudomonas cepacia (ex Burkholder 1950) Palleroni & Holmes 1981

ATCC 25416; CFBP 2227; ICMP 5796; LMG 1222; NCPPB 2993

Burkholderia gladioli (Severini 1913) Yabuuchi, Kosako, Oyaizu, Yano, Hotta, Hashimoto, Ezaki & Arakawa 1993

= Pseudomonas gladioli Severini 1913

ATCC 10248; CFBP 2427; ICMP 3950; LMG 2216; NCPPB 1891

Yabuuchi et al. (1992) proposed the new combination, B. gladioli, and this name was subsequently reported in the International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology (Yabuuchi et al. 1993), but they did not include the type strain in their investigation, thus raising doubts as to the validity of their proposal.

Burkholderia gladioli pv. agaricicola (Lincoln, Fermor, Stead & Sellwood 1991) comb. nov.

            = Pseudomonas gladioli pv. agaricicola Lincoln, Fermor, Stead & Sellwood 1991

            ICMP 11096; NCPPB 3580

Consideration of the description of this pathovar shows that it is a member of Burkholderia gladioli and it is proposed here as a new combination of that species.

Burkholderia gladioli pv. alliicola (Burkholder 1942) Young, Saddler, Takikawa, De Boer, Vauterin, Gardan, Gvozdyak & Stead 1996.

= Pseudomonas gladioli pv. alliicola (Burkholder 1942) Young, Dye & Wilkie 1978

ATCC 19302; CFBP 2422; ICMP 2804; LMG 2121; NCPPB 947

Burkholderia gladioli pv. gladioli (Severini 1913) Yabuuchi, Kosako, Oyaizu, Yano, Hotta Hashimoto, Ezaki & Arakawa 1992

= Pseudomonas gladioli pv. gladioli Severini 1913

ATCC 10248; CFBP 2427; ICMP 3950; LMG 2216; NCPPB 1891

Burkholderia glumae (Kurita & Tabei 1967) Urakami, Ito-Yoshida, Araki, Kijima, Suzuki & Komagata 1994

= Pseudomonas glumae Kurita & Tabei 1967

ATCC 33617; CFBP 2430; ICMP 3655; LMG 2196; NCPPB 2981

Burkholderia plantarii (Azegami, Nishiyama, Watanabe, Kadota, Ohuchi & Fukazawa 1987) Urakami, Ito-Yoshida, Araki, Kijima, Suzuki & Komagata 1994

= Pseudomonas plantarii Azegami, Nishiyama, Watanabe, Kadota, Ohuchi & Fukazawa 1987

ATCC 43733; ICMP 9424; LMG 9035; NCPPB 3590

Burkholderia solanacearum (Smith 1896) Yabuuchi, Kosako, Oyaizu, Yano, Hotta, Hashimoto, Ezaki & Arakawa 1993

see Ralstonia solanacearum

Clavibacter Davis, Gillaspie, Vidaver & Harris 1984

Clavibacter iranicus (ex Scharif 1961) Davis, Gillaspie, Vidaver & Harris 1984

see Rathayibacter iranicus

Clavibacter michiganensis (Smith 1910) Davis, Gillaspie, Vidaver & Harris 1984

= Corynebacterium michiganense (Smith 1910) Jensen 1934

= Corynebacterium michiganense subsp. michiganense (Smith 1910) Jensen 1934

= Corynebacterium michiganense pv. michiganense (Smith 1910) Jensen 1934

CFBP 2352; ICMP 2550; LMG 7333; NCPPB 2979

Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Smith 1910) Davis, Gillaspie, Vidaver & Harris 1984

= Corynebacterium michiganense subsp. michiganense (Smith 1910) Jensen 1934

= Corynebacterium michiganense pv. michiganense (Smith 1910) Jensen 1934

CFBP 2352; ICMP 2550; LMG 7333; NCPPB 2979

Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. insidiosus (McCulloch 1925) Davis, Gillaspie, Vidaver & Harris 1984

= Corynebacterium insidiosum (McCulloch 1925) Jensen 1934

= Corynebacterium michiganense subsp. insidiosum (McCulloch 1925) Carlson & Vidaver 1982

= Corynebacterium michiganense pv. insidiosum (McCulloch 1925) Dye & Kemp 1977

CFBP 2404; ICMP 2621; LMG 3663; NCPPB 1109

Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis (Vidaver & Mandel 1974) Davis, Gillaspie, Vidaver & Harris 1984

= Corynebacterium michiganense pv. nebraskense (Vidaver & Mandel 1974) Dye & Kemp 1977

= Corynebacterium michiganense subsp. nebraskense (Vidaver & Mandel 1974) Carlson & Vidaver 1982

= Corynebacterium nebraskense Vidaver & Mandel 1974

ATCC 27794; CFBP 2405; ICMP 3298; LMG 3700; NCPPB 2581

Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus (Spieckermann & Kotthoff 1914) Davis, Gillaspie, Vidaver & Harris 1984

= Corynebacterium michiganense subsp. sepedonicum (Spieckermann & Kotthoff 1914) Carlson & Vidaver 1982

= Corynebacterium michiganense pv. sepedonicum (Spieckermann & Kotthoff 1914) Dye & Kemp 1977

= Corynebacterium sepedonicum (Spieckermann & Kotthoff 1914) Skaptason & Burkholder 1942

ATCC 33113; CFBP 2049; ICMP 2535; LMG 2889; NCPPB 2137

Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. tessellarius (Carlson & Vidaver 1982) Davis, Gillaspie, Vidaver & Harris 1984

= Corynebacterium michiganense subsp. tessellarium Carlson & Vidaver 1982

ATCC 33566; ICMP 7221; LMG 7294; NCPPB 3664

Clavibacter rathayi (Smith 1913) Davis, Gillaspie, Vidaver & Harris 1984

see Rathayibacter rathayi

Clavibacter toxicus Riley & Ophel 1992

ATCC 49908; ICMP 9525; NCPPB 3552

Clavibacter tritici (ex Hutchinson 1917) Davis, Gillaspie, Vidaver & Harris 1984

see Rathayibacter tritici

Clavibacter xyli Davis, Gillaspie, Vidaver & Harris 1984

see Leifsonia xyli

Clavibacter xyli subsp. xyli Davis, Gillaspie, Vidaver & Harris 1984

see Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli

Clavibacter xyli subsp. cynodontis Davis, Gillaspie, Vidaver & Harris 1984

see Leifsonia xyli subsp. cynodontis

Clostridium Prazmowski 1880

Clostridium puniceum Lund, Brocklehurst & Wyatt 1981

ATCC 43978; ICMP 12529

Corynebacterium Lehmann & Neumann 1896

Corynebacterium betae Keyworth, Howell & Dowson 1956

see Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pv. betae

Corynebacterium beticola Abdou 1969 Collins & Jones (1982) refers

see Erwinia herbicola / Pantoea agglomerans

Corynebacterium fascians (Tilford 1936) Dowson 1942

see Rhodococcus fascians

Corynebacterium flaccumfaciens (Hedges 1922) Dowson 1942

see Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens

Corynebacterium flaccumfaciens pv. betae (Keyworth, Howell & Dowson 1956) Dye & Kemp 1977

see Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pv. betae

Corynebacterium flaccumfaciens pv. flaccumfaciens (Hedges 1922) Dowson 1942

see Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pv. flaccumfaciens

Corynebacterium flaccumfaciens pv. oortii (Saaltink & Maas Geesteranus 1969) Dye & Kemp 1977

see Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pv. oortii

Corynebacterium flaccumfaciens pv. poinsettiae (Starr & Pirone 1942) Dye & Kemp 1977

see Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pv. poinsettiae

Corynebacterium flaccumfaciens subsp. betae (Keyworth, Howell & Dowson 1956) Carlson & Vidaver 1982

see Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pv. betae

Corynebacterium flaccumfaciens subsp. flaccumfaciens (Hedges 1922) Dowson 1942

see Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pv. flaccumfaciens

Corynebacterium flaccumfaciens subsp. oortii (Saaltink & Maas Geesteranus 1969) Carlson & Vidaver 1982

see Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pv. oortii

Corynebacterium flaccumfaciens subsp. poinsettiae (Starr & Pirone 1942) Carlson & Vidaver 1982

see Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pv. poinsettiae

Corynebacterium ilicis Mandel, Guba & Litsky 1961

see Arthrobacter michiganensis

Corynebacterium michiganense pv. nebraskense (Vidaver & Mandel 1974) Dye & Kemp 1977

see Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis

Corynebacterium michiganense pv. rathayi (Smith 1913) Dye & Kemp 1977

see Rathayibacter rathayi

Corynebacterium michiganense pv. sepedonicum (Spieckermann & Kotthoff 1914) Dye & Kemp 1977

see Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus

Corynebacterium michiganense pv. tritici (Hutchinson 1917) Dye & Kemp 1977

see Rathayibacter tritici

Corynebacterium michiganense subsp. insidiosum (McCulloch 1925) Carlson & Vidaver 1982

see Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. insidiosus

Corynebacterium michiganense subsp. michiganense (Smith 1910) Jensen 1934

see Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis

Corynebacterium michiganense subsp. nebraskense (Vidaver & Mandel 1974) Carlson & Vidaver 1982

see Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis

Corynebacterium michiganense subsp. sepedonicum (Spieckermann & Kotthoff 1914) Carlson & Vidaver 1982

see Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus

Corynebacterium michiganense subsp. tessellarius Carlson & Vidaver 1982

see Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. tessellarius

Corynebacterium nebraskense Vidaver & Mandel 1974

see Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis

Corynebacterium oortii Saaltink & Maas Geesteranus 1969

see Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pv. oortii

Corynebacterium poinsettiae (Starr & Pirone 1942) Burkholder 1948b

see Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pv. poinsettiae

Corynebacterium rathayi (Smith 1913) Dowson 1942

see Rathayibacter rathayi

Corynebacterium sepedonicum (Spieckermann & Kotthoff 1914) Skaptason & Burkholder 1942

see Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus

[Corynebacterium tritici (Hutchinson 1917) Burkholder 1948b]

see Rathayibacter tritici

Curtobacterium Yamada & Komagata 1972

Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens (Hedges 1922) Collins & Jones 1984

= Corynebacterium flaccumfaciens (Hedges 1922) Dowson 1942

ICMP 2584; LMG 3645; NCPPB 1446

Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pv. betae (Keyworth, Howell & Dowson 1956) Collins & Jones 1983

= Corynebacterium betae Keyworth, Howell & Dowson 1956

= Corynebacterium flaccumfaciens pv. betae (Keyworth, Howell & Dowson 1956) Dye & Kemp 1977

= Corynebacterium flaccumfaciens subsp. betae (Keyworth, Howell & Dowson 1956) Carlson & Vidaver 1982

CFBP 2402; ICMP 2594; LMG 3596; NCPPB 374

Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pv. flaccumfaciens (Hedges 1922) Collins & Jones 1983

= Corynebacterium flaccumfaciens pv. flaccumfaciens (Hedges 1922) Dowson 1942

= Corynebacterium flaccumfaciens subsp. flaccumfaciens (Hedges 1922) Dowson 1942

ICMP 2584; LMG 3645; NCPPB 1446

Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pv. ilicis (Mandel, Guba & Litsky 1961) Young, Watson & Dye 2004

= Corynebacterium ilicis Mandel, Guba & Litsky 1961

ICMP 2608

Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pv. oortii (Saaltink & Maas Geesteranus 1969) Collins & Jones 1983

= Corynebacterium flaccumfaciens pv. oortii (Saaltink & Maas Geesteranus 1969) Dye & Kemp 1977

= Corynebacterium flaccumfaciens subsp. oortii (Saaltink & Maas Geesteranus 1969) Carlson & Vidaver 1982

= Corynebacterium oortii Saaltink & Maas Geesteranus 1969

ATCC 25283; CFBP 1384; ICMP 2632; LMG 3702; NCPPB 2113

Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pv. poinsettiae (Starr & Pirone 1942) Collins & Jones 1983

= Corynebacterium flaccumfaciens pv. poinsettiae (Starr & Pirone 1942) Dye & Kemp 1977

= Corynebacterium flaccumfaciens subsp. poinsettiae (Starr & Pirone 1942) Carlson & Vidaver 1982

= Corynebacterium poinsettiae (Starr & Pirone 1942) Burkholder 1948b

ATCC 9682; CFBP 2403; ICMP 2566; LMG 3715; NCPPB 854