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ISPP CONGRESS CHALLENGE 2003

ProposalS to ISPP Task Force on Global Food Security

1.  Mark Holderness   January 10, 2003

Improving seed health and quality in staple crops for the resource-poor

2.  Chrys Akem   January 17, 2003

Empowering Farmers to Manage Crop diseases for Increased Food Security in Developing Countries

3.  Claude Fauquet    January 17, 2003

[A commentary, not a project proposal]

Use ISPP "political" power, and its resources, to enhance research funding in this field of science.

4.  Hubert Zandstra    January 20, 2003

Reducing Risk of Potato Production in South West Uganda

5.  Emmanuel Moses    January 20, 2003

Development of Appropriate Strategies to Control Cassava Diseases in Ghana

6.  Kitty F. Cardwell    January ??, 2003

A 'pilot' partnership program on plant pathology using the Global Partnership model.

(Charlie will forward this as soon as it arrives. The title will change)

5.  Emmanuel Moses

Development of Appropriate Strategies to Control Cassava Diseases in Ghana


Dear Dr. Delp,                 January 20, 2003

Please find the two page project proposal that I am submitting as my entry into the competition in the Congress Challenge.

The full 8 page proposal is also copied below.  The project title is 'Development of Appropriate Strategies to Control Cassava Diseases in Ghana'.

Best wishes,

Emmanuel Moses (Dr.)
Crops Research Institute
Kumasi, Ghana

Project Title: Development of Appropriate Strategies to Control Cassava Diseases in Ghana

Rationale

Cassava is the third largest source of carbohydrate for human consumption in the world and the most important food crop in Africa. It is the principal carbohydrate source for more than 500 million people in the tropical world. Cassava plays a famine prevention role wherever it is cultivated widely. Famine rarely occurs in areas where cassava is grown widely because it provides a stable base to the food production system (Romanoff and Lynam, 1992). Cassava’s adaptability to a range of climatic and edaphic conditions including tolerance to drought, some pests and diseases relative to other crops, confers a comparative advantage on cassava under conditions of famine against alternative crops.

   

Cassava production in Ghana has been under great threat due to  a root rot disease caused by the basidiomycete, Polyporus sulphureus (Pseudophaelus baudonii). The disease is identified on the field when the large yellow fruiting body of the fungus is found growing attached to the base of a growing cassava stem. Wilting and complete defoliation are some of the symptoms of the disease. At harvest all storage roots of attacked plants are rotten. Yield losses as high as 100% have been observed or reported in several cassava growing communities where the disease is endemic. This pathogen poses the greatest threat to cassava production in the country. The disease has the potential of destabilizing the food security of the country when allowed to spread to all the cassava growing districts of the country. The food security in the sub-region of west Africa can be seriously threatened if the mushroom responsible for the rot spreads into neighboring countries. In addition,  African cassava mosaic disease (ACMD), cassava bacterial blight (CBB) and Cassava Anthracnose Disease  (CAD) cause severe yield losses of cassava as most farmers plant susceptible cultivars. Unfortunately however, majority of farmers in Ghana have very little or no knowledge of plant diseases and therefore, do practically little or nothing to control diseases. Majority of cassava farmers do consider some disease symptoms of the crop as normal features of the plant.

 Objectives:

  1. To develop appropriate measures to control root rot disease of cassava
  2. To create and increase farmers awareness to diseases of cassava
  3. To train and equip farmers and extension agents with simple skills that will enable them identify diseases and control them.
  4. To develop simple educational materials on diseases and their control to improve             

extension delivery.

Activities Plan

1. Cassava genotypes in Breeding Programmes will be tested for resistance particularly to the root rot disease in disease hotspot areas. Improved cassava genotypes will be obtained from the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Nigeria, and screened  for resistance.

2. Continuous cropping of cassava on the same piece of land promotes diseases and increase disease severity. Experiments will be set up at root rot hot spots to investigate the effect of alternating different cycles of maize or sweetpotato with one cycle of cassava on incidence and severity of the root rot disease.

3. Improved cultural practices will be developed for farmers.

4. Research trials will be used as Farmer Field Schools to train farmers and extension to acquire basic skills in plant disease control with emphasis on the major diseases of cassava.

5.Extension materials such as factsheets, disease control guides and awareness creation programmes will be developed  to improve delivery of extension services in the country.

Anticipated Outputs:

  1. Incidence and severity of root rot of cassava reduced by 50% in endemic areas.
  2. Yield losses due to root rot of cassava and the major diseases will be reduced significantly.
  3. Over 2000 farmers and 400 Extension Agents will be trained to acquire skills  in disease control.
  4. Awareness to diseases of cassava and that of other crops will be created in all cassava growing districts of the country.
  5. Agricultural Extension packages will be developed to improve extension on disease control.

 

Resource Requirement:

Money will be required to meet the following:

1.      Establishment and maintenance of research trials.

2.      Project vehicle running and maintenance costs.

3.      Development and publication of extension materials.

4.      Support for Farmer Field Schools and Workshops.

5.      Night allowances for Scientists/ Technicians and Drivers.

My Organisations Contribution:

1.      Salaries of project staff

2.      Project administration cost

3.      Office space for project

4.      Vehicle(s)  for project implementation

5.      Project Supervision

References:

Romanoff, S. and Lynam, J. 1992. Commentary. Cassava and African food security: some ethnographic examples. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 27: 29-41

      

Dear Dr. Scott,

p.scott@cabi.org

Please find as an attachment a full project proposal that I am submitting as my entry into the competition in the Congress Challenge.

Best wishes,

Emmanuel Moses

Crops Research Institute

Kumasi, Ghana

e-mail: emoses@mail.com

Project Title:  Development of Appropriate Strategies to Control Cassava Diseases in Ghana

Principal Scientist:  E. Moses  (Ph. D, Plant Pathology) – CSIR-CRI

Address:       CSIR – Crops Research Institute

         P. O. Box 3785

                       Kumasi, Ghana

Implementing Institution:  CSIR-Crops Research  Institute, Ghana

Collaborating Scientists

        J.N.L. Lamptey  (Ph. D, Virology) – CSIR-CRI

        S. Akrofi   (M. Phil., Plant Pathology)- CSIR-PGRC

                       E.  Blay    (M. Phil., Plant Pathology)- MOFA

 I.K. Asante (Ph. D, Breeding) -UG

        G. Ampong Mensah ( M. Phil,. Breeding)- CSIR-CRI

                      J. A. Otoo (Ph. D., Agronomy)- CSIR-CRI

Institutions: MOFA- Ministry of Food and Agriculture, Ghana

                    UG- University of Ghana

                    CSIR- Council for Scientific and Industrial Research

                    PGRC-Plant Genetic Resource Centre

Duration of Project:               3 years.

Location of Project:    Volta, Central, Ashanti and Eastern Regions of Ghana,

Introduction

Cassava (Manihot  esculanta Crantz ) is the only member of the family Euphorbiaceae that is cultivated as a food crop (Fauquet and Fargette, 1990). It is the third largest source of carbohydrate for human consumption in the world and the most important food crop in Africa. More than 80% of cassava produced in the world is consumed by human beings and it is the principal carbohydrate source for more than 500 million people in the tropical world (Lozano, 1986; Fauquet and Fargette, 1990). The cassava storage root on dry weight basis contains  92% carbohydrates.  Leaves of cassava contains 7% proteins on fresh weight basis and are used in meal preparations as vegetables in Ghana and several other African countries.

 Nweke et al., (1999) reported in their working paper on the Collaborative Study of Cassava in Africa (COSCA) that the cassava crop is the most important of all the arable crops cultivated in Ghana. The COSCA report further revealed that villages that did not experience the famine of 1983 in Ghana were those that cultivated cassava as the most important and dominant staple crop. Areas where the other major staples, plantain, maize, millet and sorghum were considered to be most important were found by the authoritative COSCA study on cassava to be prone to famine. Cassava plays a famine prevention role wherever it is cultivated widely. Famine rarely occurs in areas where cassava is grown widely because it provides a stable base to the food production system (Romanoff and Lynam, 1992). Cassava’s adaptability to a range of climatic and edaphic conditions including tolerance to drought, some pests and diseases relative to other crops, confers a comparative advantage on cassava under conditions of famine against alternative crops (Fresco, 1993). In addition, cassava can be used in preparing varieties of meals that are very popular among all classes of people particularly the poor of the society in Ghana. Cassava processed into ‘gari’ and ‘konkonte’ can be stored for years without any loss in food value. These processed foods from cassava are popular in Ghana, Nigeria and several other West African states.  In Ghana, cassava is the most important staple crop that needs to be managed efficiently to improve food security. This fact may apply to several sub-saharan African countries.   

The mean fresh root yield of cassava in Ghana is 13.0 tonnes per hectare (Nweke et al., (1999). Yields as high as 30.0 tonnes per hectare or more however, can be achieved.

Diseases are among the major constraints that prevent optimum yields from being achieved. Incidence of African Cassava Mosaic Disease (ACMD) and  Cassava Anthracnose Disease (CAD) are significantly very high in cassava growing regions of Ghana (Moses and Lamptey, 2001).  Severity of the two diseases are quite high in several cassava growing districts of the country. Most of the varieties cultivated in the country including introduced improved varieties are susceptible to these two diseases. Though figures are not immediately available, yield losses due to ACMD and CAD  could be high in several parts of the country. Incidence of Cassava Bacterial Blight (CBB) is on the increase in the country probably due to expansion in cassava cultivation or production to feed emerging starch producing industries. CBB can cause total crop failure that can result into famine if conditions favorable to the pathogen, Xanthomonas campestris  pv. manihotis persist (Williams et al., 1973). Candlestick plants that results from severe CBB attacks can create shortages in planting materials.  Unfortunately however, majority of farmers in Ghana have very little or no knowledge of plant diseases and therefore, do practically little or nothing to control diseases. Majority of cassava farmers do consider some disease symptoms of the crop as normal features of the plant.

The most threatening disease of cassava in Ghana currently is a root rot caused by the basidiomycete, Polyporus sulphureus (Pseudophaelus baudonii). This disease was not mentioned in the COSCA report. Farmers reports indicate that the first observations of the fungus attacking cassava were made in the early 90s. The disease is identified on the field when the large yellow fruiting body of the fungus is found growing attached to the base of a growing cassava stem. Wilting and complete defoliation are some of the symptoms of the disease. At harvest all storage roots of attacked plants are rotten. Yield losses as high as 100% have been observed or reported in several cassava growing communities where the disease is endemic.  The host range of the pathogen is quite wide and these include a number of forest tree species. This pathogen poses the greatest threat to cassava production in the country. The disease has the potential of destabilizing the food security of the country when allowed to spread to all the cassava growing districts of the country. Industries that depend on cassava are also under threat. There is even the danger of the disease spreading to neighboring countries in the West African sub region. The pathogen may even be in other countries already, considering the ease with which food materials cross borders easily in Africa.

The aim of this project is to develop appropriate strategies primarily to control the new root rot disease that is fast threatening cassava production in Ghana. The fact that farmers and most Extension Agents have little knowledge of plant diseases also makes it important for this project to tackle this crucial problem of educating farmers to identify all major diseases of cassava and control them. The two activities can be handled together.

It has to be stated that some of the activities to be conducted in this project have been tested on a small scale as an activity of the Task Force on Global Food Security of the International Society of Plant Pathology (ISPP) without any direct funding. There is every indication that a very big impact will be made on Ghana’s food security and that of other cassava growing countries in Africa and else where in the tropics that may adopt the results of this project if substantial funding is available for all the planned components of the project to be executed.

Objectives:

  1. To develop appropriate measures to control root rot disease of cassava.
  2. To create and increase farmers awareness to diseases of cassava
  3. To train and equip farmers with simple skills that will enable them identify diseases and control them on their farms.
  4. To develop simple educational materials on diseases and their control to improve             

extension delivery.

Beneficiaries:

  1. Over 80% of 18 million people in the country that depends on cassava as major staple food.

       2.  Poor resource farmers that depend on cassava to earn a living.

 3.  Industries that depend on cassava as raw material         

Impact:

          

The project will bring about a reduction in yield losses of cassava due to diseases and improve the food security of the country through increase in yield per unit of cultivated land.

Methodology:

Identification of Resistance varieties

Trials will be set up in disease hotspot areas in three different agroecologies to evaluate cassava clones being developed into varieties in Cassava Breeding Programmes in the country for resistance to the root rot disease. In addition improved cassava varieties will be obtained from the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA, Nigeria) and evaluated for resistance. Trials will be established in the coastal savanna, forest and the forest-savanna transition agroecologies of Ghana.

The farmer Participatory approach will be used in the evaluation of genotypes for resistance.

Varieties identified to be tolerant to the root rot disease will be announced to the Varietal Release Committee of the country for release and distribution to farmers.

Crop rotation

Continuous cropping of cassava on the same piece of land promotes diseases and increase disease severity.

Experiments will be set up at root rot hot spots to investigate the effect of alternating different cycles of maize with one cycle of cassava on incidence and severity of the root disease.

Experiments will be set up at root rot hot spots to investigate the effect of alternating different cycles of sweetpotato with one cycle of cassava on incidence and severity of the root rot disease.

Evaluation of cultural Practices

Farmer practices in root rot hotspots  will be studied and improved practices developed from them. Improved practices will be transferred to farmers.

Workshops and Farmer Field Schools (FFSs)

Four research trials will be set up in root rot disease hotspots in major cassava growing districts. Incidently, root rot hotspots also have high incidence of ACMV, CAD and other diseases of cassava. These trials will serve the purpose of Farmer Field Schools.

 Groups of farmers (30 in a group) will be trained on these fields to develop skills in disease identification and disease control. Several groups will be trained in 3 years.

Workshops will be organized to train farmers and extension agents. Some of these workshops will be used to evaluate the progress of the project.

 Certificates will be awarded to farmers who complete all scheduled courses in FFSs

Documentation of incidence and severity of diseases on participating farmers fields will be conducted before and after their participation in the field schools to measure impact of the project.

 

Production of Factsheets, Disease Control Guides and Awareness Creation

Scientists involved in the project will produce factsheets and disease control guides on all the major diseases of cassava in the country and improve on the few existing ones. These will be distributed through agricultural extension to farmers. Agricultural extension packages developed in this project can be adopted and used in other cassava growing countries. Audio visual materials on disease control will be developed.

Expected Outputs:

  1. Incidence and severity of root rot and other diseases of cassava reduced by at least 30%.
  2. Yield losses due to root rot and other diseases reduced significantly
  3. At least 2000 cassava farmers from  four major cassava growing regions of the country trained to acquire techniques in disease control.
  4. At least 400 Agricultural Extension Agents from major cassava growing regions trained to acquire knowledge on cassava diseases and their control.
  5. Awareness of farmers to major diseases created in all the major cassava growing districts of the country.
  6. Teaching and extension packages on cassava diseases and their control developed

Work Plan

Activities                Year 1             Year  2            Year 3          

Testing of cassava varieties

for resistance to root rot          xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

disease

Studies to determine suitable

crop rotations to reduce effects xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx  

of root rot disease

Development of improved       xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx   

cultural practices

Training workshops

and farmer field schools          xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

Production of Factsheets,

Disease Control Guides and    xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx 

Awareness Creation materials

Estimated Budget (US$)

Activity

         Year 1

        Year 2

          Year 3

Testing cassava varieties for resistance to root rot disease

         4000

  

        3000

          2500

Experiments to determine suitable crop rotations

         3000

        3000

        3000

Development of improved cultural practices

         1000

         1000

         1000

Training workshops

and farmer field schools

        5000             

        5500

         3300

Production of factsheets,

disease control guides and awareness to diseases creation

        4000

       4000

   

        3000

Stationary, communication,

Reporting,  publications of papers.

      

         500

       700

        700

Total                   17,500             17, 200                        13,500

 

Estimated Total Project Cost = US$ = 48,200


Main features the budget will cover.

1. Field preparation and maintenance

2  Fuel and vehicle running costs to visit field trials

3  Night allowances for scientists/technicians/drivers

4  Production of extension materials

5. Stationary/communication

6. Travel/per diem for farmers and extension agents to workshops and farmer field  schools    

7. Disease awareness creation programmes

References:

Fauquet C. and Farggette, D. 1990. African cassava mosaic virus: etiology, epidemiology and control. Plant Disease  74, 404-411.

Fresco, L.O. 1993. The dynamics of cassava in Africa, an outline of research issues. COSCA Working Paper No. 9. Collaborative Study of  Cassava in Africa. IITA, Ibadan, Nigeria.

 Lozano, J.C. 1986. Cassava bacterial blight: a manageable disease. Plant Disease

       70, 1089-1093

Moses, E. and Lamptey, J.N.L. 2001.  Cassava Diseases In Ghana. Annual Report of  Crops Research Institute, Ghana.     

Nweke, F.I., Haleegoah, J., Dixon, A.G.O., Ajobo, Ugwu, Al-Hassan, R.

Cassava production in Ghana. Afunction of Market Demand and Access to Improved Production and Processing Technologies. Collaborative Study of  Cassava in Africa. COSCA Working Paper No. 21. IITA, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Romanoff, S. and Lynam, J. 1992. Commentary. Cassava and African food security: some ethnographic examples. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 27: 29-41

Williams, R.J., Agboola, S.D. and Schneider, R.W. 1973.  Bacterial wilt of cassava    in Nigeria.


4.  Hubert Zandstra

Reducing Risk of Potato Production in South West Uganda

 

Dear Dr. Delp,                           January 17, 2003
In response to the call for innovative ideas that facilitate progress towards world food security, made by the International Society for Plant Pathology, I am pleased to submit the proposal entitled:
Reducing Risk of Potato Production in South West Uganda
This project will help us fill in critical gaps in our on-going collaborative activities in Sub-Saharan Africa aimed at improving livelihoods of poor farmers and their families.  I am attaching a copy of the proposal and two letters of support from collaborating institutions, PRAPACE and Africare. 

If there are any clarifications required, please let us know.

Hubert Zandstra

Reducing Risk of Potato Production in South West Uganda

Rationale

Ø      Potato is a nutritious food crop with high yield potential that can provide food security and serve as cash crop for highland tropical farmers.  In SW Uganda potato is the number-one cash crop.

Ø      Due to the crop’s potential and burgeoning processing markets, potato production and consumption is increasing in lesser-developed countries (LDC), particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Ø      Potato is highly susceptible to several diseases, two of which are devastating: late blight (LB) and bacterial wilt (BW).  These diseases introduce a high level of risk in potato production for poor farmers.

Ø      Both diseases are managed with integrated disease management (IDM) strategies based on epidemiological knowledge of the pathosystems – management is facilitated by resistance.  BW management mainly requires access to seed and land that is free of the pathogen.

Ø      LDC farmers lack basic knowledge needed to manage LB and BW.  The International Potato Center (CIP) and partners have developed highly participatory approaches (e.g. Farmer Field Schools [FFS]) to evaluate promising technologies and train farmers in IDM, which are now being successfully implemented in Latin America, Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa.

Ø      In SW Uganda, potato productivity is constrained by both BW and LB because farmers lack knowledge to implement IDM, use LB- and BW- susceptible varieties and much of the seed is contaminated with the BW pathogen.  Land scarcity exacerbates the problem.

Ø      CIP and partners are now poised to reduce risk of crop loss in S.W. Uganda.  LB-resistant varieties were released in 2002.  BW testing can be implemented in the national program (NARO) basic seed program.  Participants in a new network of seed producers can be trained to produce seed of new varieties without the BW pathogen.  A local NGO (Africare) is committed to implementing large-scale farmer training in IDM and has run pilot FFS in the region.  NARO, a regional research network[1] and CIP can provide technological and methodological back stopping.

Ø      Approximately 300 farmers can be intensively trained in BW and LB management, and BW-free seed of a LB-resistant variety can be distributed to more than 1000 farmers in 3 years.

Objectives

Ø      Make disease-free seed of a LB-resistant variety available to more than 1000 farmers in 3 years by strengthening seed-grower network currently managed by Africare. 

Ø      Evaluate CIP’s advanced materials for resistance to BW and adaptation to SW Uganda.

Ø      Produce an FFS manual for Africare to use in scaled-up farmer training.  Train 300 farmers intensively through FFS.

Ø      Integrate LB and BW management strategies in a participatory manner taking into account local specificities through on-farm learning and demonstration plots.

Ø      Enhance NARS capacities for seed production and quality testing, and disease management.

Ø      Assess impact: increase in farmer knowledge, adoption of new varieties, usefulness of FFS manual, strength and sustainability of seed production network.

                             

Activities plan

Year 1.

  1. Assess agro-institutional environment for weakness that limit production of pathogen- free seed.  Implement changes.  Technological back stopping of NARO seed production and testing for BW.
  2. Implement 3 on-farm demonstration/validation trials in SW Uganda using IDM strategies, resistant varieties and good seed.
  3. Compile, complete, edit and print first version of FFS manual for SW Uganda (based on manual used in Latin America and some pilot work done in Uganda and Ethiopia).
  4. Multiply seed of new varieties.

Year 2.

  1. Implement participatory farmer training (FFS) in 5 sites in SW Uganda to validate the manual (approx 100 farmers).  Distribution of new seed.
  2. Modify manual based on field validation.
  3. Repeat 3 on-farm trials.
  4. Monitor and backstop NARO seed testing and seed growers.
  5. Multiply seed.

Year 3.

  1. Run 10 FFS with manual (approx 200 farmers).
  2. Backstop seed production network
  3. Assess impact: farmer knowledge, variety adoption, manual utility and seed production network.
  4. Multiply seed for 1000 additional farmers.  Distribute seed with informal IDM training.

Anticipated outputs

Ø      Additional extension agents in Africare trained in FFS methodology and technical aspects of late blight and bacterial wilt management.

Ø      300 farmers trained intensively in IDM practices.

Ø      An FFS manual with methodological and technological information in English.  This could be used with some modification throughout Sub-Saharan Africa.

Ø      Impact assessment of project

Ø      Diffusion of LB – resistant varieties to more than 1000 farmers

Ø      Strengthened seed production network.

Ø      NARO with capacity to test for BW in seed.

Ø      Increased yield and productivity of potato in SW Uganda.

Resources needed.

Total budget = $50,000. 

Item

Year 1

Year 2

Year 3

1. Personnel

6,000

6,000

6,000

2. Supplies

5,000

5,000

4,000

3. Services

3,000

2,000

3,000

4. Travel

4,000

3,000

3,000

5. Total

18,000

16,000

16,000

1. is for a project coordinator in the area; 2. is for seed production and field experiments; 3. is for manual preparation and publication, communications and other administrative costs; 4. is in country (vehicle costs) and between Nairobi and Uganda for technical backstopping from CIP staff.

CIP contribution:  Technical and methodological support from Lima and Nairobi (IPM, pathology, entomology, farmer training)

PRAPACE contribution:  Networking support – linking to PRAPACE activities in the region.  Horizontal transfer of information within the region.  Up to 3000 to assist in manual publication and printing.  Administrative support.

Africare contribution:  Staff involved in farmer training.  Logistical support of FFS.  Administrative support.


BOARD OF DIRECTORS

Honorary Chairman

NELSON R. Mandela

President of the Republic of South Africa

Chairman:

DONALD F. McHENRY

University Research Professor of Diplomacy and International Affairs, Georgetown, University

Vice Chair:

DOREEN F. TILGHMAN

Assistant General Secretary, Africare/

Middle East Office, General Board of Global Ministries, United Methodist Church

Vice Chair:

ERNEST G. GREEN

Managing Director, Lehman Brothers

Treasurer:

CLYDE B. RICHARDSON

President, Loriche Productions

Secretary:

JOSEPH C. KENNEDY, Ph.D.

Senior Vice President, Africare

ROBERT S. BROWNE

Economist

LAURETTA J. BRUNO

Vice President, Africa,

J.P. Morgan & Company

MARION DAWSON CARR

President, Dearfield Associates

GEORGE A. DALLEY, Esq.

Partner, Holland & Knight

THOMAS DRAPER

President, ComRel, Inc.

NANCY M. FOLGER

Chairman, White House Endownment Fund

JAMES M. HARKLESS, Esq.

Labor Arbitrator

WILLIAM KIRKER, M.D.

AZIE TAYLOR MORTON

Vice President, GRW Capital Corporation

SITEKE G. MWALE, Ph.D

Executive Chairman, SGM Associates

HAZEL R. O’LEARY

O’Leary & Associates

THE REV. YVONNE SEON, Ph.D

SCOTT M. SPANGLER

Private Investor

Louis W. Sullivan, M.D.

President, Morehouse School of

Medicine

MARIA WALKER

CURTIN WINSOR, Jr., Ph.D,

President, Legislative Studies Institute

AMBASSADOR OUMAROU G.

YOUSSOUFOU                 

President:

Julius E.coles

Africare Uganda

Plot 28 Nakasero Road, P. O. Box 7655 Kampala, Uganda

Telephone: 256-41-230266/348605    Fax: 256-41-348604

E-mail: abmeftuh@africaonline.co.ug    Laurencem@africaonline.co.ug

Africare helps Africa with programs in Food, water, the environment,

health and humanitarian aid, as well as private-sector development and

governance.

January 17, 2003

Mr. Greg Forbes

Centro Internacional de la Papa (CIP)

Apartado 1558, Lima 12, Peru

Dear Greg,

Since 1999, there has been a good and special partnership between Africare/Uganda and the Centro Internacional de la Papa (CIP) in Kabale District.

The proposed project, “Reducing Risk of Potato Production in SW Uganda”, will therefore offer more and better opportunities for further collaboration between Africare and CIP to develop, evaluate and scale out methodologies in potato production and address food security.  We fully support the proposal.

Looking forward to our continued collaboration.

Sincerely,

Dr. Abdalla Meftuh

Country Representative

Dr. Charles Delp

ISPP Secretary General

charliedelp@hotmail.com

Dear Dr. Delp,

Support letter to “Reducing risks of Potato production in SW Uganda”

I am writing on behalf of the Potato and Sweetpotato Improvement Regional Network in East and Central Africa (PRAPACE) and the potato programs of ten member countries we work with. The countries are Burundi, DR Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Rwanda, Sudan, Tanzania and Uganda.

Potato is a very important food and cash crop in the above countries. However, production is highly constrained by diseases, of which late blight, bacterial wilt and viruses are the most important and most prevalent. Uganda is among the countries that have high crop losses due to late blight and bacterial wilt. Within Uganda, the southwestern region that produces more than 40% of the total potato production in the country probably suffers the most. Therefore this project that aims at reducing risks of potato production is highly welcomed by the farming community and by all partners working on improving the productivity of potatoes in southwest Uganda.

The project offers an opportunity for farmers, Africare, the National Agricultural Research Organization, PRAPACE and CIP to work together in a fully participatory approach to generate and adaptively test technologies that will reduce risks of late blight and bacterial wilt. This effort will lead to the production of an FFS manual that can be used for the whole region, which is in the very interest of the regional network, PRAPACE. The project puts a strong emphasis on the production and distribution of clean seed in a sustainable manner by empowering a seed producers-network started by Africare. Clean seed is a major component of IDM options and a strong contributor to yield increases. The farmer-training component of the project coupled with enhancing NARS capacities for seed production, quality testing, and disease management will contribute positively to make reduced risk potato production sustainable.

In view of all the above, PRAPACE happily expresses its full support and commitments to the project.

Sincerely,

Berga Lemaga,

PRPACE coordinator.


3.  Claude Fauquet    January 17, 2003

Use ISPP "political" power, and its resources, to enhance research funding in this field of science.

Charlie                          January 17, 2003

This is what I would say if I was going to New Zealand.  Can you convey this message for me?

Thanks,

Claude Fauquet

___________________________________

Dear ISPP Councilors,

My name is Claude Fauquet and I am in charge of the International Laboratory for Tropical Agricultural Biotechnology (ILTAB) at the Danforth Plant Science Center.  All the activity of ILTAB resides around Food Security and particularly cassava and geminiviruses.  I do believe that ISPP can and should play an important role in food security, but I do not believe that the role of ISPP is to implement of $50K program, but rather to use its "political" power, and its resources, to enhance research funding in this field of science, that is more or less out of fashion in the developed world, simply because there is too much food in the developed world and we are much more interested in the quality of food than the quantity of food.

I am based in the US and I thought we would have more chances of success of funding and capacity building than anywhere else, but the amounts of money are ridiculous compared to the tasks and therefore will be inefficient!  Furthermore politics play a major role and moneys will be diverted to all kinds of economical, feasibility, implementation studies, involving all kinds of experts, but not investing on the real problems and knowledge of the problems to come up with many more solutions.  And as politicians have a short life span they look for short-term solutions that of course do not exist! Some very powerful Foundations are much more interested in the vitamin content of food than they are in the amount of food itself, simply because it is more politically correct in the developed world!

There are several goods ideas that have been envisaged but never really implemented like having a basic research program associating scientists from the 3W and the US or Europe, it is primordial to build scientific capacity in the 3W itself, real solutions will not come from the developed world but from the 3W.  This will not be done without the participation of the developed world, scientifically and financially.

It is very essential to convey these messages at the highest levels of policy makers and the UN first.  It is essential to conduct press conferences on this topic to attract the media on the problem and it is essential to raise funding levels on this topic in every aid agency, European funding agency or governmental agencies!

I believe that an entire Plant Pathology Congress could be dedicated to this topic, precisely to attract attention of the media.

All the best and good luck to all,

Claude Fauquet 


Additional comments:

Activity 1: Changing Public Policy and Opinions on Global Food Security
*       

This is extremely important and we should target the large public and the politicians, not the scientists


Activity 2: Enhanced PhD training for plant pathology in developing countries

This is a top priority and the Association of the World Science Academies should be invited to take this as a task for their own activity

Activity 3: Quantification of the economic impact of some major diseases
*     

It is true that we do not have enough economic studies to "justify" the investment in combatting diseases.  However, from my own experience with the cassava mosaic disease, I seriously doubt that anybody can come up with a serious and credible assessment without an enormous investment, therefore counter productive.  It does not take a genious and a complexe study to realize that the cassava mosaic disease is a huge problem that takes away from people millions of tons of food.  If it is 25, 50 or 75 million tons per year does not change the problem.


Activity 4: Farmer training in simple disease management: Pilot project for cassava in Ghana
*  

Although I support this general concept, it is generally useless unless you can offer alternatives, as eradication itself is not a solution.  Furthermore Ghana is probably the country where this is already done correctly, as I could see at the IFAD project running all over Ghana?


Activity 5: Development of the ISPP Website

The last thing we need is another website that nobody but the specialists will read, we need actions

-- 

Dr. C.M. Fauquet
ILTAB Director
Danforth Center Member
975 N. Warson Rd.
St Louis, MO63132
tel: 314-587-1241
Fax: 314-587-1956
E-mail: iltab@danforthcenter.org
Website: www.danforthcenter.org/iltab


2.  Chrys Akem

Empowering Farmers to Manage Crop diseases for Increased Food Security in Developing Countries

Hi Charlie                     January 17, 2003

I am sending herewith as an attachment, a draft proposal of my submission for consideration towards the Congress Challenge. I have prepared it following the format of the Task Force Activities and based it on activity # 4 of the Task Force.

I look forward to seeing you at Christchurch during the upcoming Congress.

Best regards.
Chrys
_______________________________
Chrys Akem; PhD
Plant Pathologist
Queensland Horticulture Institute
Department of Primary Industries
Little Drysdale St., P.O. Box 591,
AYR, Qld 4807, Australia
Phone:   +61-7- 4783- 0411
Fax:       +61-7- 4783- 3193
E-mail:    Chrys.Akem@dpi.qld.gov.au

Empowering Farmers to Manage Crop diseases for Increased Food Security in Developing Countries

A. Rationale:

-         Food security is a global concern.

-         Diseases are one of the major causes of crop losses that result in food shortages, causing security concerns, despite all the efforts at increasing production.

-         To reverse the food declining trend, sustainable disease management practices are needed to reduce the losses associated with the major diseases of the main staples of the world.

-         In order to do this, those directly involved and affected by the shortages have to be given the means and know-how of managing the diseases.

-         This can mainly be achieved by focusing at the national levels of the most vulnerable regions of the world where the problem is most acute and developing simple disease management strategies with farmer participation. 

-         The outcomes can then be extended from the pilot nations of each region to other nations to have a regional and indeed global impact on food security.

B. Objectives:

  1. Identify the most vulnerable regions of the world where food security is a continuous problem and train farmers to acquire basic skills and knowledge in the diagnosis of key diseases of the main staples.
  2. Help the farmers and extension agents to put together simple integrated disease management techniques that are effective, cheap, environmental-friendly, and can be used to reduce losses associated with the key diseases of the main staples of the region.
  3. Pilot-test these packages at key locations with broad participation of interested growers and extend the packages to other nations that are not directly involved in the pilot testing.
  4. Demonstrate to the authorities how the outputs of the project can increase the food security of the region.

C. Activities Plan

A 3-year project activity plan is proposed.

The activities will be carried out in 3 possible regions of the world where food security is of real concern. These are: Sub Sahara Africa, Latin America and South East Asia.

In each region, one or two countries will be selected as model national programs for focus. Activities will follow a yearly schedule as follows:

Year 1

> Formation of a working committee with 2 reps from each region. Committee will meet and decide on the key crops of focus for each region.  Possible crops by regions:

S.S Africa – Cassava ; L. America – Cassava or potato;  S.E. Asia – Rice or Vegetables.

> In a follow up meeting, committee will decide on one or two countries from each region in which disease research on the chosen crop could make a direct impact, that can easily and readily be extended to other countries in the region.

> Produce simple pictorial guides and fact sheets of one or two key diseases of the chosen commodity or crop of focus for the region, in appropriate regional languages.

 > Select 10-20 potential participatory farmers per country in each region and organize a workshop to educate them on the objectives of the project and their roles in its execution.

Year 2

> At beginning of the season, organize a workshop with key national research staff in each region, during which all available control strategies in the region for the chosen crop(s) and disease(s) are identified.

> Formulate simple integrated management packages for each disease and validate them at multi-sites in the region on participatory farms.

> Involve participatory farmers in all evaluations of the trials including disease assessments and yield measurements, and economic impact.

Year 3

> Repeat some activities of year 2, focusing  on packages that are simple and show value and promise of adoption, based on results obtained.

> Establish demonstration sites with most promising results at key locations in participating regional countries.

> Conduct workshops to share findings of project with broader farming community and to discuss and evaluate achievements of the project and ways of adoption.

> Carry out a vigorous regional extension campaign for adoption of the project outcomes using trained extension personnel.

D. Anticipated Outputs

  1. Improved awareness of the role of disease in food security in the focus region.
  2. Ability of farmers to identify key diseases of concern on target regional crops.
  3. Awareness by farmers of other methods of control of the major diseases
  4. An appreciation and adoption of the integrated approach of managing diseases.
  5. Increased crop yields from less disease, leading to more production and increased national, regional and possibly global food security.

E. Resource Requirements

Possible minimum budget per year per region (US$);

  1. Travel and regional coordination – 15K
  2. Meetings and workshops              - 30K 
  3. Trials management         - 30k
  4. Publications related        - 15
  5. Others               - 10

Total                      > 100,000

      Note: Estimated line items would shift from year to year depending on focus for the year.

Possible Sources of funding:

Sub Sahara Africa – African Development Bank (ADB), USAID

Latin America       – USAID

South East Asia     - Asian Development Bank (ADB), ACIAR

Note: Regional coordinators could come from institutions in each region, as the institution’s contribution to the project. I shall readily coordinate the activities of the S.E Asia region, especially if the chosen focus is diseases of vegetables. In that case, funding could also be sort through ACIAR, which has on-going collaborative activities with S.E. Asian nations and Australian research institutions.


1.  Mark Holderness

Improving seed health and quality in staple crops for the resource-poor


Dear Charlie,                  January 10, 2003

Attached is our proposal to the ISPP Global Food Security Task Force for work on seed health in East Africa, for consideration by the Task Force.

I look forward to catching up with you soon in NZ.

Very best wishes,

Mark Holderness   (m.holderness@cabi.org)

Solveig Danielsen (soda@kvl.dk)

Robert Mabagala  (rmabagala@yahoo.com)

Proposal to ISPP Task Force on Global Food Security

 

Improving seed health and quality in staple crops for the resource-poor

 

DGISP[2], CABI[3] and Sokoine University of Agriculture[4]

Rationale

Over 90% of resource-poor rural households in East Africa rely on farm-saved and farmer-traded seed for production of essential staple crops for food security.  Diseases substantially reduce yields of these subsistence crops and many of these are seed-borne or affect seed quality.   Increasingly, seed is also an important vehicle for the dissemination of novel technologies.  However, these improvements often fail to benefit the resource poor through lack of access or effective delivery systems.  Simple interventions can greatly improve the health and quality of seed available to the resource-poor and create an environment in which farmers and communities are empowered with the confidence and understanding to evaluate new seed sources for themselves.

The Good Seed Initiative is an international initiative based around a generic framework and model for ensuring that poor farmers are able to benefit from staple crop seed of good health and quality.  Key themes are:

  1. Improved production, storage and management practices to ensure the health and quality of farm-saved and locally traded seed.
  2. Stakeholders empowered through knowledge of good seed principles, practices and policies.
  3. Communities empowered to evaluate and adopt new varieties and conserve valuable genetic resources.

Elements of these seed issues for the poor are addressed through a range of initiatives in East Africa, but most of these are concerned with the release of new varieties or the development of locally-developed seed quality assurance systems (Quality Declared Seed).  These particularly include a programme for the decentralized multiplication of quality declared seed and a number of initiatives for the introduction and evaluation of new varieties arising from international and national breeding programmes.  Alongside these, there are a number of programmes directly engaging farmers in the development and adaptation of plant varieties and pest management interventions (farmer field schools, participatory variety selection, on-farm germplasm conservation).  Despite its relevance, many of these activities have not so far addressed seed health elements.  An holistic view of seed health over the entire crop cycle identifies a number of areas in which increased awareness of seed health issues and the introduction of relatively simple interventions can make a significant improvement to seed health, crop management requirements and subsequent yield.

DGISP, CABI and Sokoine University of Agriculture are working with other partners to take forward these themes as a concerted programme in East Africa.  As a first case, we aim to establish and validate the principles required in pilot schemes under a range of circumstances in Tanzania, linking with and adding value to a range of national programmes already addressing other aspects of seed in the country.

Objectives

1.    To identify the extent of farmer awareness, and establish the real scale of seed health problems over the crop cycle in poor communities both connected to and remote from seed improvement schemes.

2.    To establish rational intervention points to effectively address seed quality constraints to accessibility and use of good seed

3.    To use farmer-participatory research methods to develop and adapt interventions for managing seed health

4.    To disseminate awareness of good seed issues and interventions through a range of innovative communication methods

Activities plan

Year 1

1.    Participatory rural analysis of seed quality and health issues in villages in which existing seed programmes are active (Quality Declared Seed Scheme), and in those remote from support in this area.  Associated laboratory analyses identify nature and scale of seed health & quality constraints in different agro-ecosystems.

2.    Regional stakeholder workshop to identify similar issues and systems elsewhere in E Africa and develop linkages between related initiatives.

Year 2

3.    From multidisciplinary review of outputs from 1, identify and agree with communities potential intervention points over the crop seed cycle for farmer participatory research and technology development.

4.    Develop participatory learning exercises for farmers to understand the significance of seed health and evaluate interventions for themselves, as well as enabling farmers to assess the quality of purchased seed under their own conditions.  Document outcomes as learning resource database

5.    Introduce seed experiential learning materials into curricula of farmer field schools and similar participatory learning/evaluation processes such as participatory variety selection and participatory breeding programmes, in situ germplasm conservation schemes and school curricula.

Outputs

1.   Seed health and quality needs identified and quantified in at least 4 poor communities in Tanzania

2.   Concepts and issues relating to good seed shared within E Africa and principles incorporated into public and private sector programmes in the region

3.   Holistic view of seed health established in communities and communities empowered to achieve improvement in seed health and quality.

4.   Intervention measures validated and further developed for the specific needs of resource-poor rural households

5.   Increased awareness of the value of good seed and measures by which this can be achieved or obtained among resource-poor households

Resource requirements (USD)

Yr 1

Survey costs, per diems, transport costs, training workshop - 18,000

Regional workshop, travel & accommodation, per diems - 20,000

Yr 2

Farmer-participatory technology development programme field costs - 8,000

Knowledge capture and dissemination through various media - 4,000

Co-financing is provided through Danida-funded programmes in Tanzania and other elements are under request from charitable foundations

Proposers

Mark Holderness   (m.holderness@cabi.org)

Solveig Danielsen (soda@kvl.dk)

Robert Mabagala  (rmabagala@yahoo.com)



[1] PRAPACE, the French acronym for the Program for the Improvement of Potato and Sweet potato in Eastern and Central Africa.

[2] Danish Government Institute of Seed Pathology for Developing Countries, a centre of excellence in seed health training and research

[3] CAB International, an inter-governmental technical agency concerned with the generation, access and use of agricultural knowledge

[4] Sokoine University of Agriculture, the principal agricultural university in Tanzania and coordinator of the Africa Region Seed Health and Technology Training Programme